Pacific Science Volume 34, Number 2, 1980

Permanent URI for this collection

Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 12
  • Item
    Hawaiian Alpine Lake Level, Rainfall Trends, and Spring Flow
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Woodcock, Alfred H.
    During the period May 1965 to November 1978 (162 months) 127 measurements were made of Lake Waiau water levels and overflow. This small perched body of water is located in Puu Waiau crater, at about 3970-m altitude, near the summit of the dormant volcano, Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Differences in water level are compared to the Hawaii statewide rainfall index, and to Waihu Spring flow. It is suggested that lake level is a useful indicator of rainfall trends among the islands. Measurements of the tritium concentrations of Puu Waiau crater perched lake and groundwaters, and of the nearby spring waters on the south slopes of Mauna Kea, are used to indicate that seepage from the lake is probably the principal spring-water source during drought periods. The tritium measurements suggest that something blocks direct groundwater seepage out of the Waiau crater, and indications are that the blockage is ice in a subsurface layer of relict permafrost. Study of the changes in lake and groundwater levels during the 30-month dry period July 1976 to December 1978 indicates that the groundwater basin probably occupies almost the entire Waiau crater catchment area (i.e., ~ 10 5 m2). It is suggested that permanent water-level and overflow gauges be established at Lake Waiau, and that long-term records from these gauges would be climatologically and hydrologically useful.
  • Item
    Aspects of the Natural History of the Midwater Fish Lycodapus mandibularis (Zoarcidae) in Monterey Bay, California
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Anderson, M Eric
    Aspects of the biology of the mesopelagic fish Lycodapus mandibularis are considered, primarily on the basis of closing midwater trawl samples from Monterey Bay, California. Major population centers focus in eastern North Pacific submarine canyons and deep-water inlets. The species undergoes a diel vertical migration, but not all individuals may participate in each period. Ripe individuals were found year-round and spawning is nonseasonal, probably occurring in midwater. Age estimates from otoliths showed the greatest proportion of the population sampled was of age classes III and IV, the ages at onset of maturity. The oldest individuals found were 5 years old, but estimates from the oldest fish may be biased. Feeding during the day was chiefly in surface waters, but night or day feeding in deep water may have occurred. Food items of young fish were different from those of adults but both fed heavily on planktonic crustaceans. Fish in California waters were parasitized by the nematode Thynnascaris aduncum and to a lesser degree by the copepod Cardiodectes medusaeus.
  • Item
    A Description of the Vexillifer Larvae of Pyramodon ventralis and Snyderidia canina (Pisces, Carapidae) with Comments on Classification
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Markle, Douglas F. ; Olney, John E.
    The first identified vexillifers (4.4, 6.0 mm HL) and 2 juveniles (10.5, 11.4 mm HL) of Pyramodon ventralis are described and compared with vexillifer larvae of Snyderidia canina (3.6,5.7 mm HL). The presence of pelvic fins, a visceral cradle, and a greater number of pectoral-fin rays distinguishes larvae of P. ventralis from larvae of S. canina. Pyramodontine vexillifers are characterized as follows: a deep, compressed head and trunk with a depth at the first anal ray of 0.77-0.92 HL; a short predorsal distance of 1.12-1.27 HL; more than 24 pectoral-fin rays; a proximal vexillum radial with a descending anterior process, a wavy ventral contour, and a posterior process passing under the anterior dorsal-fin radials; a pronounced second neural spine; and long anal-fin radials. Identification of a vexillifer larva of Pyramodon establishes the vexillifer larva as a unique specialization of all Carapidae and reinforces the classification of Pyramodon as a close relative of Snyderidia.
  • Item
    Larvae of the Ophichthid Eel Genus Neenchelys in the Indo-Pacific
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Castle, PHJ
    Larvae of Neenchelys Bamber are rather short and deep bodied, reaching about 75 mm before metamorphosis. They have a relatively short gut which is pigmented and slightly swollen at intervals along its length, as in larvae of other myrophine ophichthids. Neenchelys leptocephali also have a conspicuous midlateral patch of pigment about midway between the anus and caudal tip, and develop ova before metamorphosis.
  • Item
    The Cirolanidae (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Australia: The Genus Pseudolana from the Queensland Coasts with Description of Three New Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Bruce, Niel L.
    The cirolanid genus Pseudolana is fully described, as are 4 species, of which 3 are new to science, I having been previously described as Orolana concinna. The relationship of the new genus to other cirolanid genera is discussed. Brief notes are given on the habitat and distribution of the members of the genus.
  • Item
    A New Siphonostome Family (Copepoda) Associated with a Vestimentiferan in Deep Water off California
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-01) Humes, Arthur G. ; Dojiri, Masahiro
    Dirivultus dentaneus, n. gen., n. sp. (Dirivultidae n. fam.) is characterized by a combination of several features: first antenna of the female 13-segmented and that of the male 12-segmented, second antenna with a 1-segmented exopod, mandible lacking a palp, second maxilla and maxilliped prehensile, leg 4 endopod with formula 0-0; I-1, and leg 5 in the female minute with 1 seta but in male larger with 3 setae, 2 setae on free segment and 1 adjacent seta. This is the first copepod to be described from Vestimentifera in the Pacific.
  • Item
    The Annual Cycle of Oogenesis, Spawning, and Larval Settlement of the Echiuran Listriolobus pelodes off Southern California
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Pilger, John F.
    Listriolobus pelodes lives in aggregated populations in fine-grained sediments along the mainland shelf from northern California to Baja California, Mexico. This echiuran forms U-shaped burrows and uses its proboscis to feed on the uppermost layer of sediment deposited around the burrow apertures. The bacterial flora of the sediment may be an important food source. Commensals in the burrow include a polychaete, a pinnixid crab, and a small bivalve. The annual reproductive cycle of a population off Palos Verdes, California, is defined in terms of coelomic oocyte dynamics, spawning, and larval settlement. Small oocytes are released from the gonad through most of the year but fully grown oocytes are present only from mid-fall through spring. It is estimated that the coelomic phase of oogenesis lasts about 5 months. Fully grown oocytes are removed from the coelomic fluid in the germinal vesicle stage and accumulate in the storage organs until spawning. Spawning takes place in winter and spring and individuals are spawned out by summer. An annual influx of small juveniles into the population occurs in late winter and spring. The newly settled juveniles reach sexual maturity when they are 6 months to 1 year old.
  • Item
    Descriptions of Two New Genera, Scageliopsis and Glandothamnus (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta), Including Five Previously Undescribed Species from Southern Australia
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Wollaston, E.M.
    Two genera, Scageliopsis and Glandothamnus, including 5 new species (Scageliopsis patens, Glandothamnus ramulentus, G. manifestus, G. flexilis, and G. acicularis), are described from southern Australia. Both genera have some similarities with the northern hemisphere genus Scagelia Wollaston and with Platythamnion J. Agardh. Scageliopsis is characterized by whorls of equal whorl-branchlets, lateral gland cells, and carposporophytes produced on basal cells of fully developed whorl-branchlets which arise from axes capable of continued elongation. Glandothamnus is distinguished by unilateral initiation of whorl-branchlets at branch apices, adaxial branching of young whorl-branchlets, mature gland cells elongated obliquely to whorl-branchlet axes, and carposporophytes borne on fully formed whorl-branchlets arising from axes which only occasionally continue to elongate. Scageliopsis and Glandothamnus are placed with Scagelia in the tribe Antithamnieae (Ceramiaceae). Complete keys to all known genera of the tribes Antithamnieae and Heterothamnieae are included.
  • Item
    Early Collections of Hawaiian Marine Algae
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Abbott, Isabella A.
    A group of specimens representing 40 taxa of Hawaiian marine algae has come to light and is among the earliest collections of Hawaiian algae. Though only 24 of the specimens can be tallied with a list of 112 marine plants published by J. E. Chamberlain in 1880 and 1881, they answer a great need for verification of published names. Sixteen of the previously named taxa are changed because of taxonomic opinion or nomenclature. Sixteen taxa are added from the collection that were not included in the Chamberlain list. The specimens are now housed in the B. P. Bishop Museum in Honolulu.
  • Item
    Effect of Different Photon Flux Densities (PAR) on Seedling Growth and Morphology of Metrosideros collina (Forst.) Gray
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1980-04) Friend, Douglas J.
    Seedlings of Metrosideros were capable of net accumulation of dry matter at photon flux densities as low as 13 umol m-2 s-1 PAR (about 0.6 percent sunlight), when grown under a 12-hour day1ength at 20° or 25°C for over 4 months. Seedlings became adapted to shade at low levels of PAR by an increased leafiness of the plant (expressed as the leaf area ratio). This increased leafiness was brought about by a marked reduction in leaf thickness rather than by an increase in the proportion of assimilates distributed to leaves.
Copyright by University of Hawai’i Press. All rights reserved.