Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality: Services and Applications

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    Problem Space Identification for Developing Virtual Reality Learning Environments
    ( 2021-01-05) Lähtevänoja, Antti ; Holopainen, Jani ; Mattila, Osmo ; Pöyry, Essi ; Parvinen, Petri ; Tuunanen, Tuure
    Our study argues that the extant literature on virtual reality-based learning environments (VRLEs) currently lacks proper definitions and context descriptions for a problem space, which is fundamental for conducting design science research (DSR). Without properly conducted problem space identification, the most pivotal problems cannot be identified resulting solutions lacking validity and unreliable evaluations. This is a major challenge for the DSR in the educational field, but also for the research on VRLEs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a novel DSR method to support rigorous problem space identification, which would allow rigorous and profound problem space analysis. The instantiation of our method is depicted with a VRLE development project. In the problem space identification –process we adopt the concepts of self-determination theory and learning path to study and consider individual and a system level of the current VRLE artifact. This theoretical lens enables us to identify the problem space for VRLEs and also suggest how the to-be-developed artifact to be later evaluated. This paper contributes by introducing a general problem space identification for VRLEs and a DSR method to guide the future DSR in the educational field.
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    Augmented Reality in VET: Benefits of a qualitative and quantitative study for workplace training
    ( 2021-01-05) Sommerauer, Peter
    Augmented Reality (AR) is widely used in various training and learning settings, like schools, universities, and workplaces. The effects of individual AR learning apps on learning performance in formal learning environments have been examined in detail in various studies. However, up to today only few empirical studies have investigated AR’s potential for supporting learning at workplaces and for vocational education and training (VET). In this study we target this research gap by using AR applications for Microsoft Hololens and tablet/smartphone to support learning in technically oriented workplace trainings. We conducted an observational field study with 135 professionals from the event technology industry and the results of our qualitative and quantitative data analysis suggest that integrating AR elements into trainings at workplaces has the potential to enable training experiences which can hardly be simulated with traditional media and which are perceived as beneficial for motivation and learning performance.
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    Augmented Reality in Offline Retail: Integrating the Affordance and Means-End Chain Perspectives
    ( 2021-01-05) Teh, Camen ; Phang, Chee Wei ; Chong, Alain Yee Long ; Guo, Zixiu
    This paper presents an integrated approach that combines both the affordance and means-end chain (MEC) perspectives to examine the cognitive structure of offline retail consumers in relation to the material properties of Augmented Reality (AR) technology. Drawing from both perspectives, we propose that while an information technology (IT) artefact gives rise to affordances through its interactions with users’ goals, personal values play a role in the emergence of affordances as well. We present our preliminary study whereby we conducted 15 laddering interviews to investigate how consumers use AR, the benefits that consumers seek to obtain when using AR in offline retail and why they seek to pursue them. Our findings suggest that the AR affordances that emerged in relation to consumers’ goals enable consumers to achieve both utilitarian and hedonic values. Further, we identified and discussed AR-related boundaries stemming from user and AR capacity limitations. Based on our exploratory findings and proposed integrated framework, we conclude this paper with suggestions on potential future research directions.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Mixed, Augmented and Virtual Reality: Services and Applications
    ( 2021-01-05) Pöyry, Essi ; Mattila, Osmo ; Hamari, Juho ; Holopainen, Jani