Ph.D. - History

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    Localizing Islamic orthodoxy in northern coastal Java in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : a study of pegon Islamic texts
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Umam, Saiful
    This dissertation examines the localization of Islam in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the northern coastal areas of Java, Indonesia. It focuses on a unique type of Islamic texts, Kitab Pegon, which are books on Islam in the Javanese language using Arabic script. Written by local ulama (religious scholars), Pegon books discuss various branches of Islamic knowledge. Their intended audience is commoners, and therefore they were composed in the vernacular language employing the lower stratified Javanese, ngoko. An assessment on this type of sources reveals that despite their adoption of local cultures and ideas, their contents conformed to Sunni orthodox teachings. Muhammad Salih Darat (1820-1903 CE) paved the way for the popularity of Pegon Islamic texts in Java. Differentiating between the universality of Islam and locality of Arabic, Salih defended the authority of Pegon books and argued that they provided no less significant role than Arabic ones in advancing Islamic knowledge among Muslims. Based on this argument, Salih employed Javanese terms and concepts for explaining Islamic tenets in order to make them more intelligible among commoners. This practice has been followed by many Javanese ulama in the twentieth century. The introduction of Pegon Islamic texts and their availability in great quantity due to the adoption of print technology have contributed significantly to the increasing Islamic orthodoxy among the Javanese people. Having learned to read the Qur'an at an early age, the Javanese were usually familiar with the Arabic script, which greatly facilitated their ability to read Pegon texts. The Pegon texts also proved useful for local ulama who continue to teach Islamic knowledge to ordinary adults at prayer houses and mosques. Contrary to the widely-held belief that Javanese Islam was syncretic and heavily influenced by pre-Islamic ideas, this dissertation argues that orthodox ideas had been present since the sixteenth century and became increasingly prominent since the nineteenth century as a result of the publication of Islamic texts in Pegon. This dissertation hopefully contributes to debates on the localization of world religions, by providing a case study in which orthodoxy was clearly maintained within a process of localization.
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    Khalwatiah Sammān : a popular Sufi Islamic movement in South Sulawesi, Indonesia (1820s-1998)
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Ubaedillah, Achmad
    This dissertation examines the Khalwatiah Sammān Sufi brotherhood (tarekat) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, and attempts to explain the reason for its continuing success since its origins in the first half of the nineteenth century. A major reason, I contend, is the very close relationship that is maintained between its leaders (Shaikh, Murshīd, Khalīfah) and its followers (sanakmangaji) through the legitimization of the authority of the former via Islamic spiritual ideas (taṣawwuf). The emergence of this tarekat was the result of the confluence in the nineteenth century of two important developments: the expansion of European colonialism in Muslim lands around the world, and the rise of the puritanical Wahabi movement centered in the heartland of Islam. The links between the Islamic heartland and the Malay-Indonesian archipelago grew stronger in this period, as religious discourses, particularly Sufism, became increasingly influential in the ummah, or community of believers, "below the winds." The Khalwatiah Sammān tarekat in South Sulawesi appealed far more to the commoners than the elite. Its eclectic religious perspective, though opposed by the orthodox modernist and traditional streams of Islam, was in fact a reason for its attraction among the ordinary people. One of its appeals is the practice of reciting the zikir (dzikr al-Jahri) as a congregation, rather than performing a private silent zikir as is done by other tarekats. Challenged by the two Islamic mainstreams--global Wahabism and local orthodoxy--the Khalawatiah Sammān responded by creating a tarekat that succeeded in demonstrating its legitimacy and orthodoxy through its scholarly leaders and their links to important Islamic teachers in Mecca and Medina, the Ḥaramayn. One of the major conclusions of this study is that Islam is not monolithic, and that groups such as the Khalwatiah Sammān demonstrate the dynamism of Islam in all its different cultural manifestations.
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    Grafting justice : crime and the politics of punishment in Korea, 1875-1938
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [December 2011], 2011-12) Sprunger, Michael Lorin
    This dissertation examines changing forms, functions, and meanings of punishment in Korea from the late nineteenth century through the late 1930s. In particular, it seeks to understand how various and often competing political and economic interests, conceptions of crime and proper punishment, and penal technologies and practices interacted in Korea to shape the emergence of a system of confinement-based punishment. While this process coincided with and was clearly affected by Korea's colonization by Japan, it is argued that punishment in Korea during these years should not be reduced to the simple function of political instrumentality, but can better be understood as a complex social institution. The various forms, functions, and meanings it displayed over time can only be understood in light of the complex and contradictory forces shaping them. Specifically, this study examines the process by which penal authority in Korea was gradually usurped by the Japanese and subsequently contributed to Korea's formal colonization; how Japanese claims to a penal civilizing mission were constructed, contested, and qualified; how principles of rehabilitative punishment were put into practice and affected by new theories of criminality; and the ways in which colonial punishment was experienced, contested, and negotiated at the human level in colonial Korea.
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    A malu i fale, 'e malu fo'i i fafo Samoan women and power : towards an historiography of changes and continuities in power relations in le nu'u o teine of sāoluafata 1350--1998 c.E.
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [August 2011], 2011-08) Simanu-Klutz, Manumaua Luafata
    Samoa's women have been studied in specific albeit rare moments in time by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, but never as historical agents of a society which they have helped shape and sustain in a variety of ways for hundreds of years. This dissertation is an attempt to fill that void by examining the power of the Samoan woman--her pule, authority, mālosi, economic strength, and mamalu, social power--through the story of a unique political entity identified here as the Nu'u o Teine of Sāoluafata, the governing council of women in one of my ancestral villages on the northeastern side of the island of 'Upolu. This dissertation is concerned with a genealogy of the origins of the chiefly titles in both the Nu'u o Teine and Nu'u o Ali'i, the council of (male) chiefs. It traces the evolution of the teine's power since its founding in the mid-1300s through more contemporary times, and identifies the historical benefits and challenges of being both feagaiga, in sacred covenant with their brothers, and as suli, heirs to chiefly titles and lands. The rediscovery of this power is particularly critical at a time when globalization and international initiatives promoting women and human rights are affecting personal and cultural identities, as well as local customs and traditions. In this manner, the Nu'u o Teine of Sāoluafata serves as an analytical tool with which to view the changes and continuities in the Samoan women's sources and mechanisms of power. Specifically, questions on how these sources and tools of power have been utilized, subjugated, colonized, or manipulated are examined as the teine mediated their way through three distinct periods of time--the Vavau, Samoa's past before Western contact (1300s-1700s), Faigafa'apapalagi (1722-1962), the ways of the white people, and Faigafa'aonaponei 1962-1998), the ways of today. Though unique in its political beginnings and structure, the Nu'u o Teine is a tool with which to historicize the political, social, economic, and cultural dimensions of the feagaiga, and the shift by degree from a relationship of complimentarity to one of symmetry as Samoan women reassert their rights to lands and titles which they had historically deferred to their brothers. Given the scarcity of archival and secondary sources on Sāoluafata's past in particular and Samoan women's history in general, this study relies on oral traditions and the ethnologies of nineteenth century government officials. Moreover, in line with David Hanlon's suggestions of what Pacific islands history might look like, this study has made a conscious effort to view the past through the eyes of the current members of the Nu'u o Teine, and through a critical examination of what Tui Atua Tupua Tamasese Efi deems as "indigenous references." This study is a su'ifefiloi, a medley, of versions made possible by a triangulation of oral, archival, and ethnographic texts and contexts.
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    The shadow only be their portion' : gendered colonial spaces in Aotearoa/New Zealand, 1840-1855
    ([Honolulu] : [University of Hawaii at Manoa], [May 2011], 2011-05) Cozens, Erin Ford
    The two primary goals of this work are to unpack the myriad ways that gender was an integral component of the construction of colonial spaces within New Zealand, and to demonstrate the ways in which a range of historical actors transgressed those spaces. In doing so it advocates for the centrality of gender within colonial processes in New Zealand while at the same time highlighting the need for more nuanced examinations of the exceedingly gendered nature of encounters between Pacific Islanders and colonizers throughout Oceania.