Social and Psychological Perspectices in Collaboration Research
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ItemTrusting in Machines: How Mode of Interaction Affects Willingness to Share Personal Information with Machines( 2018-01-03)Every day, people make decisions about whether to trust machines with their personal information, such as letting a phone track one’s location. How do people decide whether to trust a machine? In a field experiment, we tested how two modes of interaction-”expression modality, whether the person is talking or typing to a machine, and response modality, whether the machine is talking or typing back-”influence the willingness to trust a machine. Based on research that expressing oneself verbally reduces self-control compared to nonverbal expression, we predicted that talking to a machine might make people more willing to share their personal information. Based on research on the link between anthropomorphism and trust, we further predicted that machines who talked (versus texted) would seem more human-like and be trusted more. Using a popular chatterbot phone application, we randomly assigned over 300 community members to either talk or type to the phone, which either talked or typed in return. We then measured how much participants anthropomorphized the machine and their willingness to share their personal information (e.g., their location, credit card information) with it. Results revealed that talking made people more willing to share their personal information than texting, and this was robust to participants’ self-reported comfort with technology, age, gender, and conversation characteristics. But listening to the application’s voice did not affect anthropomorphism or trust compared to reading its text. We conclude by considering the theoretical and practical implications of this experiment for understanding how people trust machines.
ItemThe Effects of Different Emoticons on the Perception of Emails in the Workplace( 2018-01-03)Non-verbal communication cues, e.g. facial expressions, and their surrogates in computer-mediated communication, emoticons, influence how a message is understood. Based on the four-ear model of communication, we examine in detail how emoticons affect message perception. More specifically, we examine the different effects of three emoticons [:-) :-( ;-)] on the four levels that define communication. Using a factorial survey with a treatment control group design (N = 231), our findings suggest that emoticon usage does not influence the understanding of a message at the factual information and appeal levels. However, we show that the usage of happy and ironic emoticons significantly shapes the subtext of a message, namely the relationship and self-revelation level, whereas sad emoticons do not have such an effect. These findings hold practical implications: Most importantly, senders can use happy and ironic emoticons to soften their email messages’ illocutionary force at the relationship level and self-revelation level.
ItemThe Effect of Software Team Personality Composition on Learning and Performance: Making the "Dream" Team( 2018-01-03)Optimizing work team composition in organizational and educational environments is an important task toward maximizing performance. Social science research has revealed that personality trait composition influences team cohesion and performance. However, this research has not been well-adapted into the IS context. In addition, prior research demonstrates how individual personality traits impact teams, but fails to appropriately characterize overall team personality composition. We expand this research by 1) characterizing holistic personality compositions, and 2) examining team learning in addition to performance in the IS context. We draw from theory on team performance and "Big 5" trait composition. Results demonstrate that teams comprised of homogenous versus heterogeneous personality compositions differ in their performance and learning. The primary implication of this research is that teams can benefit from a priori personality measurements and directed composition. Initially, optimal learning and effectiveness comes from homogenous teams. However, this may change over time.
ItemConnecting with Coworkers on Social Network Sites: Strategies, Social Norms and Outcomes on Work Relationships( 2018-01-03)Although an increasing number of individuals are connected with their coworkers on social network sites (SNS) that are professional and personal (e.g., Facebook), little research has explored the outcomes of these connections on interpersonal relationships at work. Drawing on SNS research as well as on an existing typology of online boundary management strategies (i.e., "audience", "content", "custom" and "open"), we took an exploratory qualitative approach and interviewed all employees of 4 teams in diverse working environments. Our findings reveal that although interviewees’ behaviors reflected the 4 strategies, there were gray zones, and the audience strategy veered off course. Almost all interviewees monitored their content disclosure through either content or custom strategies. Specific social norms regarding SNS emerged. The outcomes of connecting with coworkers on SNS were mostly positive, including liking, closeness, respect, and organizational citizenship behaviors toward individuals (OCBI). However, disliking, loss of respect and envy were also mentioned.