Smart and Connected Cities and Communities

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    “The Bright and the Dark Side of Smart Lights” The Protective Effect of Smart City Infrastructures
    ( 2019-01-08) Mihale-Wilson, Cristina ; Felka, Patrick ; Hinz, Oliver
    In this paper, we investigate the protective effect of smart street lighting on public safety. Smart lights have a variety of features, such as video surveillance or gun-shot detection. Some of these features can have a deterrent effect on crime. Other features, however, such as adaptive brightness control, may also encourage crime. Using a comprehensive dataset on the crimes committed in downtown San Diego (CA) during 1st May 2017 and 30th April 2018, we investigate the crime rates a priori and posterior to the installation of smart lights in this area. The results of the empirical analysis suggest that smart lights have a statistically significant negative impact on crime and that their installation increases the safety of citizens.
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    Are You Responsible for Traffic Congestion? A Systematic Review of the Socio-technical Perspective of Smart Mobility Services
    ( 2019-01-08) Ebner, Katharina ; Mattes, Patrick ; Smolnik, Stefan
    A large amount of the pollution of modern cities is caused by individual transportation. Hence, many road users suffer from stress, emissions and noise. Smart mobility services can help improving the situa-tion by distributing traffic more consistently across different routes, times, and transportation modes. These services comprise two dimensions, a technical and a socio-technical. The latter addresses the road user’s role as data and knowledge provider and stresses the road user’s role in actively contributing to relieved traffic. As such, road users display one of the strongest levers to sustainably relieve traffic both in terms of knowledge providers and traffic actors. Using a systematic analysis of 28 publications, we show that existing SMob services show several chal-lenges related to the involvement of road users. We call for more research on SMob services that account for long-term user involvement e.g. by positively in-fluences road users’ practices and routines.
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    In the search for the ‘Smart’ Source of the Perception of Quality of Life in European Smart Cities
    ( 2019-01-08) Rodríguez Bolívar, Manuel Pedro
    In the last years, cities are actively developing strategies towards the goal of becoming "smart" with the promise of producing a higher quality of life (QLF) for citizens in the urban environment. This paper seeks to analyze whether smart cities are those with a higher QLF in the urban environment as well as to investigate the smart dimensions that could have an influence on the citizen's perception of QLF. Findings based on a sample of European smart cities indicate that the smart city's promise of increasing the citizen's QLF is true, but it seems to be mainly focused on the outcomes (smart living dimension) and not in other smart dimensions that could be focused on the process to obtain the outcomes (smart governance or smart environment, for example).
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    Study of Individual Differences in the Behavior of Mobile Technology Users in the Context of Urban Mobility
    ( 2019-01-08) Cassitas Hino, Marcia ; Cunha, Maria Alexandra
    With the accelerated process of urbanization, the Brazilian population is now 85% urban. In countries with emerging economies, the reduction in urban mobility has emerged as a major problem that affects both the economy and people's quality of life. The mobility difficulties faced in cities differ between men and women. This study uses the Individual Differences to Gender and IT (IDTGIT) theory and investigates how individual differences influence the behavior of urban mobility service technology use. The research includes qualitatively structured interviews, questionnaires, and demonstrations. The results show the influence of individual characteristics and present five profiles of women in relation to their behaviors. This study enriches theory by demonstrating a new way to analyze this phenomenon By focusing on practice, the study contributes to the information available for companies seeking to facilitate access to urban mobility services and companies related to urban transport services.
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    Public Libraries as Anchor Institutions in Smart Communities: Current Practices and Future Development
    ( 2019-01-08) Mersand, Shannon ; Gasco-Hernandez, Mila ; Udoh, Emmanuel ; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon
    Local governments around the world are exploring different strategies to become smarter: more efficient, sustainable, and highly interconnected. However, many actors outside government need to be involved too. For instance, public libraries have the potential to play a very important role in the development of smart and connected communities, due to their strong legitimacy in the eyes of citizens and the types of services and programs they are already providing, which in many cases go well beyond what could be considered traditional library services. This paper analyzes innovative practices in public libraries and argue that they already show the potential of public libraries to become catalysts for smart and connected communities. Together, these innovations represent an opportunity for governments and communities to engage and a new way to think about public libraries as very important actors in smart community initiatives.
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    A Framework for understanding & classifying Urban Data Business Models
    ( 2019-01-08) Mcloughlin, Shane ; Puvvala, Abhinay ; Maccani, Giovanni ; Donnellan, Brian
    Governments’ objective to transition to ‘Smart Cities’ heralds new possibilities for urban data business models to address pressing city challenges and digital transformation imperatives. Urban data business models are not well understood due to such factors as the maturity of the market and limited available research within this domain. Understanding the barriers and challenges in urban data business model development as well as the types of opportunities in the ecosystem is essential for incumbents and new entrants. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework for understanding and classifying Urban Data Business Models (UDBM). This paper uses an embedded case study method to derive the framework by analyzing 40 publicly funded and supported business model experiments that address pressing city challenges under one initiative. This research contributes to the scholarly discourse on business model innovation in the context of smart cities.
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    Impact of Governance Structure Characteristics of Public-private Partnerships on Smart City Project Success: Evidence from a Multi-case Study in China
    ( 2019-01-08) Liu, Luning ; Ju, Jingrui ; Feng, Yuqiang ; Hu, Qing
    Due to the technological and financial complexity and difficulties of smart city initiatives, the local governments usually adopt a public-private partnership model to govern such projects. This study explores the opportunities and challenges of building smart cities through the public-private partnership (PPP) model. Using an exploratory case study methodology, we interviewed participants in building smart city initiatives across China to develop a theoretical model that captures the essence of such a partnership. Case interview data from three major cities in China were utilized. We analyzed the data of 28 interviews with officials and personnel from public, private, and hybrid organizations involved in smart city projects. Finally, we identified and theoretically validated the following research findings: (1) two key components of the success of smart city initiatives; (2) four key governance structure characteristics of the PPP model that enables the smart city success; (3) two key considerations for establishing the governance structure of a PPP model. The theoretical framework we propose herein can be used to understand the current status and provide guidance for future smart city initiatives.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Smart and Connected Cities and Communities
    ( 2019-01-08) Gasco-Hernandez, Mila ; Rodríguez Bolívar, Manuel Pedro ; Nam, Taewoo