John A. Burns School of Medicine Faculty & Researcher Works

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    Building medical students' social responsibility and lifelong learning skills through Wikipedia editing
    ( 2021) Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Patil, Uday ; Hillgren, K.J. ; Hishinuma, Earl ; Kasuya, Richard
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    Reinventing Information Literacy with Wikipedia in Medical Education
    ( 2020-12-05) Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Patil, Uday ; Hillgren, K.J.
    During these unprecedented times, reliable health information is at a premium. Much evidence attests to the value of Wikipedia in the classroom but relatively few instructors challenge their students to contribute to the online encyclopedia. Increasingly, more medical schools are forming education partnerships with Wiki Education to have students develop and improve health science articles. Medical students are ideal contributors to health science-related WikiProjects due to their technical expertise and academic discipline. Additionally, editing medicine-related articles provides a novel opportunity for embedding information literacy concepts into the medical education curriculum. To this end, the presenters piloted Wikipedia editing projects over two cohorts (n=149) of first-year medical students at the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Each cohort received a varying combination of face-to-face and asynchronous online training over multiple weeks. Upon completion, groups were assessed on participation, article quality improvement, and perceived information literacy as well as attitudes and competencies before and after the project. Findings suggest students attained enhanced literacy skills in multiple domains. Also, structural completeness of edited health articles improved significantly, leading to increased general readership. Instructional librarians can utilize editing sessions to help connect information literacy concepts to professional work through a purposeful, beneficial assignment embedded into medical education curricula. In addition to presenting the practical conclusions of these studies, the facilitators will guide attendees through the Wikipedia article editing process. Participants will become familiar with the Wiki Education student project management platform and learn best practices for utilizing WikiProject Medicine in the classroom.
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    Simplifying Systematic Reviews: Development of a Health Science Research Toolbox
    ( 2020-10-16) Patil, Uday ; Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Hillgren, K.J.
    High demand for systematic review training in medical libraries led to the development of a digital “toolbox” at the Health Sciences Library of the John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa. This collection included original written content coupled with expert-led video tutorials from various medical libraries, organized by process stages. Customized LibGuides provided good content management and delivery of resources. Google Analytics provided useful statistics related to utilization and trends. There was overwhelming use of the toolbox, with two sections viewed the most: Data Extraction and Quality Assessment. Underused section resources may be redundant and duplicated in other campuswide LibGuides. This collection complemented workshop curricula as well as provided guidance asynchronously. Future interview and observational research into user navigation will uncover how users navigate among toolbox sections and which resources are being used.
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    Reinventing Information Literacy: Wikipedia and Medical Education
    ( 2019-11) Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Patil, Uday ; Hillgren, K.J.

    Much evidence attests to the value of Wikipedia in the classroom but relatively few instructors challenge their students to contribute to the online encyclopedia. Increasingly, medical schools are participating in education partnerships with Wiki Edu to have students develop and/or improve health science articles (1).

    Medical students are ideal contributors to health science Wikiprojects due to their technical expertise and attention to detail. Additionally, editing medicine-related articles provides a novel opportunity for embedding information literacy concepts into the medical education curriculum.

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    Wikipedia-editing as a teaching strategy in health professional schools: 6 years, 5 countries, 5 professions...and counting.
    ( 2019-11) Azzam, Amin ; Jacobs, Joshua ; Richards, Maureen ; Hird, Kathryn ; Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Lebowitz, David ; Costello, Jospeh ; Dexter, Nadine ; Brock, Tina ; Geres, Nour ; Brennan, Emily

    ● Wikipedia is the world’s most frequently used health-information source.
    ● Embracing the platform helps fulfill health professional schools’ teaching & service missions.
    ● Student & faculty effort searching, analyzing, writing & editing Wikipedia is scholarly work.
    ● The Wiki Education Foundation’s “Students in the Health Professions” campaign aggregates all efforts of these students editing WIkipedia as part of formal coursework.
    ● Since 2013, there have been 1,271 students who have added 711,000 words, 86 images and 9,030 references to 642 health-related Wikipedia pages.
    ● These Wikipedia pages have been viewed 55.2 million times since students began contributing.
    ● Participants highlight the refreshingly collaborative nature of the work-- for students, librarians, and faculty alike!

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    Medical Students & Wikipedia Editing: Implications for reinforcing & improving information literacy skills
    ( 2019) Kahili-Heede, Melissa ; Hishinuma, Earl ; Kasuya, Richard

    This poster presents the results of a pilot study that examines the use of Wikipedia editing with first-year medical students as an intervention for reinforcing and improving information literacy skills. The study took place at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, John A. Burns School of Medicine with students from the MD class of 2022.

    Methods: The students learned to edit and contribute to Wikipedia over a period of three months from August to November 2018. At the conclusion of the editing experience, students were asked to respond to a retrospective pre/post survey to assess the impact of Wikipedia editing on various information literacy skills.

    Results: Data gathered from the survey show a statistically significant improvement in the students' perceived information literacy skills.

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    Hemichordate genomes and deuterostome origins
    (Nature, 2015-11) Humphreys, Tom
    Note: A full list of authors and affiliations appears at the end of the article. Acorn worms, also known as enteropneust (literally, ‘gut-breathing’) hemichordates, are marine invertebrates that share features with echinoderms and chordates. Together, these three phyla comprise the deuterostomes. Here we report the draft genome sequences of two acorn worms, Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Ptychodera flava. By comparing them with diverse bilaterian genomes, we identify shared traits that were probably inherited from the last common deuterostome ancestor, and then explore evolutionary trajectories leading from this ancestor to hemichordates, echinoderms and chordates. The hemichordate genomes exhibit extensive conserved synteny with amphioxus and other bilaterians, and deeply conserved non-coding sequences that are candidates for conserved gene-regulatory elements. Notably, hemichordates possess a deuterostome-specific genomic cluster of four ordered transcription factor genes, the expression of which is associated with the development of pharyngeal ‘gill’ slits, the foremost morphological innovation of early deuterostomes, and is probably central to their filter-feeding lifestyle. Comparative analysis reveals numerous deuterostome-specific gene novelties, including genes found in deuterostomes and marine microbes, but not other animals. The putative functions of these genes can be linked to physiological, metabolic and developmental specializations of the filter-feeding ancestor.
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    Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents
    (Nature, 2015-05) Noble, Kimberly G. ; Houston, Suzanne M. ; Brito, Natalie H. ; Bartsch, Hauke ; Kan, Eric ; Kuperman, Joshua ; Akshoomoff, Natacha ; Amaral, David G. ; Bloss, Cinnamon S. ; Libiger, Ondrej ; Schork, Nicolas J. ; Murray, Sarah S. ; Casey, B.J. ; Chang, Linda ; Ernst, Thomas M. ; Frazier, Jean A. ; Gruen, Jeffrey R. ; Kennedy, David N. ; Van Zijl, Peter ; Mostofsky, Stewart ; Kaufmann, Walter E. ; Kenet, Tal ; Dale, Anders M. ; Jernigan, Terry L. ; Sowell, Elizabeth R. ; Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study
    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed.