Pacific Science Volume 31, Number 4, 1977

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Vegetation and Urbanization on Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-10) Sabath, Michael D.
    The urban and nonurban vegetation on the Micronesian atoll of Majuro is described, including changes in forest canopy, understory shrubs, yards, and cultural features since urbanization began in 1944. Currently, the nonurban areas are covered with Cocos nucifera (coconut) groves mixed with smaller Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) groves, which were probably established in the late 1800s. Indigenous vegetation is limited to a narrow band along the ocean or lagoon shoreline, or as minor understory species in the Cocos-Artocarpus groves. A United States military base was established in 1944 on three eastern islands of the atoll (Uliga, Dalap, and Djarrit). This has subsequently been developed into a major administrative and commercial center for the Marshall Islands. Urbanization on Uliga, Dalap, and Djarrit has resulted in reduction of tree canopy; establishment of extensive yards with grasses, herbs, and sedges; and reduction of many indigenous and aboriginally introduced understory species. Nevertheless, some aboriginally introduced and indigenous species remain in the urban areas as important species (Cocos, Artocarpus, and Tournefortia), with many being actively propagated. Ornamental species, which have expanded in importance, especially in the shrub layer, consist primarily of species recorded in Laura village prior to urbanization. The urban plant community is a mixture of indigenous, aboriginally introduced, and recently introduced species. Future urban expansion is predicted with commercial and residential development replacing horticultural forests along the southern islands of the atoll.
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    31: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977)
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    Bryozoa from Cost Rica
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-10) Banta, William C. ; Carson, Renate J.M.
    Twenty-three species of cheilostomes and one cyclostome from two localities on the Atlantic and Pacific sides of Costa Rica are described and illustrated. Two-thirds (16) of the species are considered poorly understood taxonomically. The bryozoan fauna of tropical America is probably less well understood than the literature suggests. Discussions of special interest are those ofthe genera Membranipora, Parellisina, Labioporella, Schizoporella, Escharina, Cigclisula, and Rhynchozoon, and of the higher taxa Bryozoa, Ectoprocta, Gymnolaemata, Eurystomata, Anasca, Ascophora, and Cyclostomata.
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    Manganese Crusts and Nodules from the Hawaiian Ridge
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-10) Glasby, G.P. ; Andrews, J.E.
    Manganese stains, crusts, and nodules are widely distributed on the insular slopes of the Hawaiian ridge. The thickness of the manganese crusts depends on depth of water, water circulation, and the age and lithology of the substrate, and varies from absent to stains off the island of Hawaii to a maximum of 5 cm in the vicinity of Midway. Scanning electron microscope studies indicate that the internal structure of the manganese crusts is relatively featureless compared with that of deep-sea manganese nodules. Reconsideration of ages of manganese deposits from the Hawaiian archipelago indicates that the rates of accretion of manganese crusts are probably in the same range as those of deep-sea deposits and that the crusts do not accrete at a much faster rate than deep-sea deposits as previously suggested. Iron staining is observed in the volcanic substrates and becomes more apparent with the increasing age of the substrate. There appears, however, to be no evidence that iron oxide is a ubiquitous control factor in initiating manganese crustal growth. Because of the terrain and the rocky nature of the substrate, diagenetic processes within the sediment column probably play no major role in controlling the composition of manganese crusts on the flanks of the island ridge.
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    Taxonomic Status, Biology, and Distribution of Hawaiian Lentipes, a Diadromous Goby
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-10) Maciolek, J.A.
    Three species ascribed to the goby genus Lentipes include two from Hawaii, L. concolor (Gill 1860) and L. seminudus Gunther (1880), and one from the Gulf of Guinea, L. bustamantaei Boulenger (1916). The Hawaiian species were described from single specimens of different sex. Specimens collected recently provide evidence that Hawaiian Lentipes comprise a single, sexually dimorphic species. The African species differs significantly and more nearly resembles Sicydium. Lentipes now must be considered a monotypic genus (L. concolor) endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago. The genus is distinguished by weak scalation (2-150 cycloid scales per side on posterior trunk), five subequa1 and one shorter spine in the first dorsal fin, 16 pectoral rays, and one projecting ossified gill raker on the first arch. The sexes differ mainly in head shape, relative mouth size, dentition, spacing of dorsal fins, and coloration. The female is drab; the male is yellow to red posteriorly and has a white anal fin margin. Adult Lentipes, omnivorous and growing to nearly 140 mm TL, inhabit pristine steep-gradient streams. Larvae develop in the ocean and appear at stream mouths as post1arvae less than 20 mm 10ng.Upstream'migrants are capable of ascending high waterfalls, where they reach areas of permanent residence. Surveys located Lentipes in 22 streams (6 percent of the total streams in the archipelago) but the goby was abundant in only a few of them. Because of sparse Lentipes populations and incompatibility with past and continuing habitat degradation, endangered status recognition is recommended.
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