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ItemAccommodation in Instant Messaging(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2017-08)Differing levels of formality are salient to linguists and laypeople alike (Coupland 2014) - including in computer-mediated communication (CMC), which has not been extensively researched. As formality is so salient, it would not be surprising if users of CMC react differently to conversation partners who use different levels of formality, for instance by accommodating to their conversation partner’s formality level (Beebe & Giles 1984). In this study, sociolinguistic interviews were carried out over instant messaging - a synchronous, one-on-one form of CMC. To investigate accommodation, these interviews were carried out in two conditions: one where formal features were used, and one where informal features were used. During the last part of the interviews in both conditions, the conditions were switched. Standard capitalization is a common marker of formality in CMC (Lahti & Laippala 2014, also shown to be perceived as true by frequent CMC users in a pre-study); due to this, one of the main differences between these conditions was that the interviewer used standard capitalization in the formal condition, but no capitalization at all in the informal condition. The results indicate trends in the expected direction, as well as substantial variation acrossparticipants.
ItemA Grammatical Analysis of the Nakasaleka Dialect(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015-11-20)Dialects in Fiji are normally referred to by the name of the province in which they belong (for exanrple, the Revia dialect, the Bau dialect, the Serua dialect, the Lau dialect, the Kadavu dialect etc.), although in reality, they do not correspond exactly vnth any such regional boundaries. Fijian could be viewed as a continuum, for the language actually alters little by little as one moves from village to village. It is believed that the rost clearly defined group in eastern Fiji is the Kadavu dialect(s), which contains a large body of unique innovations, vdth a few innovations being shared with other eastern regions. In focussing this paper on the Nakasaleka dialect, I was fortunate to have had Ilai V. Senivota as my infornant. Ilai, thirty-five years old, is from lfakaunakoro village in the district of Nakasaleka, Kadavu. He was first educated at the Nakasaleka District School, and then for four years, at an Intermediate School called "Provincial School Southern" in Vunisea.
ItemA Phonetic Study of Nasalization in Marathi(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2014-09-26)While several studies have been done on the nasalization process in many of the major Indo-Aryan languages, the present study is apparently the first of nasalization in Marathi. Nasal air pressure was collected for phonemically oral and nasal vowels and a comparison made in terms of their average energy readings. Phonemically oral vowels adjacent to a nasal consonant (N) were analyzed and it was determined that Marathi has contextual nasalization which is progressive. Marathi has phonemically nasal vowels in the position directly before and after an N. An analysis of these vowels indicated that they are somewhat more nasalized, but not enough to be significant; in which case, it appears that perception plays a large role in distinguishing nasal vowels in these environments .