Volume 36 - November 2003 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Introductions for Biological Control in Hawaii 1997–2001
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Culliney, Thomas W. ; Nagamine, Walter T. ; Teramoto, Kenneth K.
    Introductions and releases of natural enemies for the biological control of agricultural and forest pests in Hawaii are discussed for the period 1997-2001. Sixteen insect and five fungal species were introduced, released, or redistributed by the Hawaii Department of Agriculture for the control of six weeds (Clidemia hirta, Coccinia grandis, Miconia calvescens, Myrica faya, Senecio madagascariensis, and Ulex europaeus) and four insect pests (Aleurocanthus woglumi, Bemisia argentifolii, Pentalonia nigronervosa, and Sipha flava).
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    Nontarget Arthropods Captured in Cue-lure Baited Bucket Traps at Area-Wide Pest Management Implementation Sites in Kamuela and Kula, Hawaiian Islands
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Uchida, Grant K. ; McInnis, Donald O. ; Vargas, Roger I. ; Kumashiro, Bernarr R. ; Jang, Eric
    An area-wide integrated pest management (AWPM) program began in the Hawaiian Islands in October, 1999 to demonstrate the feasibility of suppressing populations of three economically important species of fruit flies (oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly (Bactrocera curcurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann)). Past concerns in Hawaii about the impact of fruit fly lures on nontarget species, especially endemic Hawaiian species, have prompted research on methyl eugenol and protein hydrolysate bait. The objective of this study was to collect, identify, and categorize field-collected nontarget arthropods captured in cue-lure baited bucket traps in the AWPM implementation sites. Attraction of nontarget species to cue-lure baited traps shows a need for future improvements in trap design.
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    Preliminary Field Tests on the Suitability of Amdro and Distance in Ant Bait Container for Control of the Big-Headed Ant, Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Taniguchi, Glenn Y. ; Ota, Asher K. ; Kawate, Michael K. ; Rohrbach, Kenneth G. ; Uchida, Grant K.
    Studies were conducted to (1) select a suitable brand of bait container for use in the control of big-headed ant in an agricultural situations, (2) determine the short-term effects environmental conditions on the potency of Amdro in a suitable bait container, and (3) to compare the effectiveness under field conditions of various spacings of bait containers using Distance and Amdro in sequence. Perimeter Patrol System bait container was selected as the most suitable for field use based on the capacity to contain sufficient amounts of Amdro, lower cost, smaller size, low profile shape, and ease of handling. Potency of Amdro was retained in the Perimeter Patrol System container for a period of twelve weeks. Bait containers spaced at 15.24 m apart in a field plot had the best control compared with 7.62 and 30.48 m spacings.
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    Fortuitous Introduction of Two Natural Enemies of Lantana camara to Chuuk
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Muniappan, R. ; Reddy, G.V.P.
    Ophiomyia lantanae (Froggatt) and the Calycomyza lantanae Frick were recorded from Lantana camara L. in Chuuk Islands. Both of these agromyzids are native to tropical Americas and were not intentionally introduced and this is the second report of fortuitous introduction of natural enemies of L. camara in to the Chuuk State possibly from Pohnpei State within the Federal States of Micronesia.
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    Uroleucon formosanum (Takahashi) (Homoptera: Aphididae) Found on Youngia japonica (L.) DC on Guam and Rota in the Mariana Islands
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Miller, R.H. ; Idechiil, O. ; Foottit, R.G ; Pike, K.S.
    Uroleucon formosanum (Homoptera: Aphididae) was collected from Asiatic (Oriental) hawksbeard, Youngia japonica, on Guam and Rota in 2003. These collections constitute a significant range expansion for U. formosanum into the western Pacific region. The aphid and its host plant were likely accidentally introduced to the islands in cargo or by travelers returning from known host regions in eastern Asia and Japan.
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    A Survey for Potential Biocontrol Agents of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Ramadan, Mohsen M. ; Messing, Russell H.
    Limited investigations on parasitoids of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), infesting five species of Cucurbitaceae and seven species of Solanaceae were conducted in Thailand to determine natural occurrence of biological control agents. Fruit samples were collected during January-February 1996, and tephritid puparia were imported into the State of Hawaii Quarantine Facility for fly and parasitoid emergence. Cucumis sativus L., Luffa acutangula (L.), and Momordica charantia L. were commonly infested by B. cucurbitae. Bactrocera tau (Walker) was dominant only in L. acutangula. Infestation of ripe, cultivated fruit of M. charantia was 72.3 B. cucurbitae/kg fruit and parasitoids were pre-dominantly Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with parasitization rates up to 12.4%. Bactrocera cucurbitae infesting M. charantia in northern Thailand yielded an unidentified Aceratoneuromyia species, (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Unlike other eulophids that attack B. cucurbitae, which require the presence of P. fletcheri in the same puparium to suppress host immunity, this parasitoid was able to develop alone. Average fecundity was 135 offspring/ female and mean parasitoids /host puparium was 21.1. It was also developed in the laboratory on the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), with an average life span of 23 d in both host species. Six species of solanaceous fruit were mainly infested by Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), with infestation rates ranging from 4 to 17 flies/kg fruit. Psyttalia fletcheri and unidentified opiine, Bitomus species, eclosed from B. latifrons infested bird chili, Capsicum frustescens L. Only Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. produced B. cucurbitae, lightly parasitized by P. fletcheri.
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    Parasitoids of Sophonia Leafhoppers in Southern China
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Messing, Russell ; Alyokhin, Andrei ; Quan, Lin-nai ; Yiqun, Chen ; Xiongxi, Fang
    Leafhoppers and their parasitoids in Fuzhou, China, were sampled from 1998 to 2001 in order to find natural enemies with potential for biological control of Sophonia rufofascia in Hawaii. Eleven parasitoid species were found, of which Chaetomymar sp. (Mymaridae) were the most abundant, accounting for 65.8% of total parasitism. Parasitism of leafhopper eggs in guava orchards averaged 61.9% from April to November, with peak parasitism in September of 91.4%.
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    Survey for Parasitic Honey Bee Mites in Hawaii (Acariformes: Tarsonemidae; Parasitiformes: Laelapidae, Varroidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Culliney, Thomas W.
    A survey was conducted in Hawaii to determine the presence of three mite pests of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.): Acarapis woodi (Rennie), Tropilaelaps clareae Delfinado & Baker, and Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman. A total of 837 random samples were taken from managed and feral bee colonies on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. No mites were found in any of the samples. Data were analyzed employing the binomial distribution as a likelihood function. Results showed that there was a 99% probability that the unknown prevalence of mite infestation within the Hawaii honey bee population would be no greater than 0.55%. Thus, Hawaii can be considered to be free of parasitic honey bee mites at the present time.
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    Factors Affecting the Occurrence of Second Copulation by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Females (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Lee, Stephan G. ; McCombs, Susan D. ; Saul, Stephen H.
    Logistic regression was used to construct two models to predict the occurrence of second copulations by Mediterranean fruit fly females in sequential copulations with fertile males or with irradiated and non-irradiated males. Male genotype and duration of the first copulation were significant variables in determining the occurrence of a second copulation by individual females. Male age and irradiated male mating order were additional significant variables in sequential copulations with irradiated and non-irradiated males.
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    Mosquito Species Breeding in Bromeliad Axils on the Island of Kauai, Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2003-11) Yang, Pingjun ; Furumizo, Roy ; Tangalin, Leroy ; Takekuma, Clyde ; Hall, Kenneth E.
    Bromeliads are important ornamental plants in Hawaii. They grow widely in yards, gardens and commercial nurseries. The water held in bromeliads provides breeding sites for mosquito larvae. A survey was conducted from May to September 2001 at four sites on the island of Kauai, Hawaii. Choice of three species of bromeliads for the survey was based solely on the volume of reservoirs of water held in their axils. They were Vriesea aff. regina, Neoregelia sp. and Neoregelia ‘Macwilliamsii’. Four species of mosquitoes were recovered, including a bromeliad mosquito, Wyeomyia mitchellii (Theobald), the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), and a beneficial species, Toxorhynchites amboinensis (Doleschall). The abundance of mosquito larvae was affected by bromeliad species. The larvae of Wy. mitchellii, Ae. albopictus and T. amboinensis were found in all three species of bromeliads while Cu. quinquefasciatus was only recovered from V. aff. regina. Overall, V. aff. regina, the largest of the three species, contained more mosquito larvae, both in numbers and species, than the other two species of bromeliads. The abundance of mosquito larvae in bromeliads was also affected by their location. For the three noxious species of mosquitoes, the number of larvae present in the axils of the three species of bromeliads varied from site to site. For V. aff. regina, more Cu. quinquefasciatus larvae were found in the leaf axils than in the central axils. The three noxious species of mosquitoes can either breed alone or together in V. aff. regina axils.