Pacific Science Volume 49, Number 2, 1995

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Callidictyon abyssorum, gen. et sp. nov. (Rhodophyta), A New Deep-water Net-forming Alga from Hawai'i
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1995-04) Norris, James N. ; Abbott, Isabella A. ; Agegian, Catherine R.
    Callidictyon abyssorum, gen. et sp. nov., an unusual, net-forming red alga, is described from deep-water Pacific collections made from the research submersible Makati'i at 80-m depths on Penguin Bank, off the island of Moloka'i, Hawai'i. Though no reproductive structures were found, the new genus shares vegetative similarities with three tribes of the Ceramiaceae. The vegetative structure of C. abyssorum is similar to that of genera of the tribe Antithamnieae in having: (1) distinct basal cells on all primary lateral branches that are isodiametric and smaller than other cells of the primary laterals; (2) a central axis that is prostrate except for the portions near the apices of branches; and (3) axes that are completely without cortication. Some characters of C. abyssorum also suggest affinities to genera of the Callithamnieae, including: (1) the oblique apical cell division resulting in a strictly alternate branching pattern; (2) the absence of gland cells; and, (3) the presence of short, branching rhizoids on the basal cells of the primary lateral branches and long slender rhizoids on the main axial cells. Finally, the regularly alternate branching pattern, blunt apices, formation of anastomoses, and different .types of rhizoidal filaments, all characteristics of C. abyssorum, are also features present in members of the Compsothamnieae. Based on vegetative features, Callidictyon is tentatively placed in the Ceramiaceae until reproductive structures are found.
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    Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculation of Hawaiian Plants: A Conservation Technique for Endangered Tropical Species
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1995-04) Koske, R.E. ; Gemma, J.N.
    Forty species of plants (including 28 species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands) were evaluated in the greenhouse for their response to inoculation with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. Seedlings, cuttings, and established plants were inoculated. Several kinds of growth media were used. Increased growth and survival most frequently occurred when plants were grown in a gravel or fine sand medium that included calcined clay (up to 50% by volume) or sphagnum peat (up to 20%). Significant increases in height, weight, leaf number and size, and survival were noted in 10 of 14 species of seedlings grown in media in which peat content was 20% or less. Mycorrhizae were only rarely present in the noninoculated plants except for plants grown from cuttings. The latter routinely formed mycorrhizae in the absence of added inoculum. Addition of mycorrhizal fungi to potting mixes appears to have value as a conservation technique for some plants that are difficult to propagate.
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    Mycorrhizae in Hawaiian Epiphytes
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1995-04) Gemma, J.N. ; Koske, R.E.
    In surveys in the Hawaiian Islands, mycorrhizae occurred frequently in epiphytic, nonorchidaceous angiosperms and pteridophytes. Both vesicular-arbuscular (VA) and ericoid mycorrhizae were present in epiphytes growing 1-3 m above the forest floor on dead and living tree trunks and on living tree ferns in montane wet forest sites. All eight angiosperm species were mycorrhizal, and 13 of 22 pteridophytes possessed VA mycorrhizae. The high frequency of mycorrhizae in epiphytic species suggests that propagules of mycorrhizal fungi routinely are dispersed to these microsites. Possible means of dispersal are discussed.
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    Notes on Ceramium (Rhodophyta: Ceramiales) from the Hawaiian Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1995-04) Meneses, Isabel
    Ceramium is widely distributed and recorded from the coasts of the North Pacific Ocean. Thus, it is not surprising to find new species and new records of this genus among the numerous islands spread in this oceanic region. Extensive examination of material collected around O'ahu and other Hawaiian Islands has yielded two new records: Ceramium aduncum Nakamura (previously known from Japan), Ceramium clarionensis Setchell & Gardner (previously recorded for the Pacific coast of Mexico), and a new species, Ceramium cingulum Meneses.
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    Latitudinal Differences between Palau and Yap in Coral Reproductive Synchrony
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1995-04) Kenyon, Jean C.
    Twenty-seven species of coral were examined for reproductive activity in Palau during late spring and early summer 1993, and 10 species in Yap during the last week of May 1993. Thirteen species in Palau were gravid, and six were observed spawning during the week following Mayor June full moon. Spawning occurs over a minimum of 4 months in Palau. By contrast, all 10 coral species sampled in Yap, 420 km to the northeast, were well synchronized for a mass spawning event after June full moon. Intra- and interspecific spawning at equatorial latitudes is less tightly synchronized than at higher latitudes in the central Pacific. Opportunities for hybridization are a function, in part, of interspecific spawning synchrony. If hybridization serves as a mechanism for speciation in corals, then regions characterized by multispecies spawning events are more likely to serve as sites of speciation than those where spawning is more asynchronous.
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