Pacific Science Volume 44, Number 4, 1990

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    44: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1990)
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    44:4 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1990-10)
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    Plant Water Deficits, Osmotic Properties, and Hydraulic Resistances of Hawaiian Dubautia Species from Adjacent Bog and Wet-Forest Habitats
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1990-10) Canfield, Joan E.
    Functional responses of two closely related Dubautia species from a mosaic of Hawaiian bogs and wet forest were compared to help explain their differential distributions. Dubautia paleata is largely restricted to saturated bogs, while D. raillardioides is restricted to the surrounding, better-drained wet forest. Minimum diurnal tissue water potentials of D. paleata are significantly lower than those of D. raillardioides, despite the moister condition of bog soil. The tissue osmotic potential at full hydration of D. paleata is significantly lower than that of D. raillardioides. As a result, the tissue water potential at which turgor reaches zero for D. paleata is significantly lower than that of D. raillardioides. Dubautia paleata is thus able to maintain positive turgor to lower water potentials than D. raillardioides. Lack of a lowered, in D. raillardioides may therefore contribute to exclusion of that species from the bog habitat. Preliminary data suggest a significantly greater hydraulic resistance for D. paleata than for D. raillardioides, probably due to higher root resistance caused by the reduced condition of the waterlogged bog substrate. The difference in hydraulic resistance could help account for the contrasting water deficits of the two species.
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    Revision of the Genera of Gall Crabs (Crustacea: Cryptochiridae) Occurring in the Pacific Ocean
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1990-10) Kropp, Roy K.
    The coral gall crabs, Family Cryptochiridae, occurring in the Pacific Ocean are reviewed. Fifteen genera, including four new genera, are recognized: Cryptochirus Heller; Dacryomaia, new genus; Fizesereneia Takeda & Tamura; Fungicola Serene; Hapalocarcinus Stimpson; Hiroia Takeda & Tamura; Lithoscaptus Milne Edwards; Neotroglocarcinus Takeda & Tamura; Opecarcinus Kropp & Manning; Pelycomaia, new genus; Pseudocryptochirus Hiro; Pseudohapalocarcinus Fize & Serene; Sphenomaia, new genus; Utinomiella Kropp & Takeda; and Xynomaia, new genus. Host, depth, and distribution records are given for each genus. A key to the females of all gall crab genera is included.
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    Movement of Coconut Crabs, Birgus latro, in a Rainforest Habitat in Vanuatu
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1990-10) Fletcher, W.J. ; Brown, I.W. ; Fielder, D.R.
    Patterns of movement in the coconut crab, Birgus latro (L.), were studied using mark-recapture and radio-tracking techniques at a number of sites in the rainforest regions of eastern Santo, Republic of Vanuatu (South Pacific). Movement was assessed both for crabs caught and released in one place (indigenous) and for crabs caught and then released at a new location (introduced). Recapture rates in eastern Santo were very small ( < I%), whereas on the small islet sites (area <2 ha) the rate approached 20%. There were no significant relationships between distance moved and either time at liberty or size of the individuals for introduced crabs. But for indigenous crabs, size of individual was negatively correlated with distance moved. Recapture rates of introduced and indigenous crabs were similar , but introduced crabs moved significantly further from their point of release. Almost all radio-tagged crabs moved from their point of release; smaller crabs tended to move further. On eastern Santo, only two of five radio-tagged crabs were located again ; both had moved over 250-m away from their release point. On the islet sites, all radiotagged crabs were found again at least once; some of these returned to a number of different sites, indicating that B. latro seems to be able to home to particular locations. Nonetheless, dispersal of animals from an area, at least after handling, is a common feature.
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