Volume 50 - 2018: Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Minutes, membership, in memorium
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-12-30) Matsunaga, Janis
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    Trapping Male Melon Flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Mixtures of Zingerone and Cue-Lure in the Field
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-12-31) Inskeep, Jess R. ; Spafford, Helen ; Shelly, Todd E.
    The males of many fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to, and feed upon, a few natural compounds (and their synthetic analogs; commonly referred to as “lures”). Zingerone is a lure that has garnered recent attention for its use as an attractant for ecological surveys and pest management of select fruit flies. We investigated the attraction of male melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), to zingerone and mixtures of zingerone and cue-lure (the typical lure for this species) at a commercial farm on Oahu, Hawaii. Our findings indicate that zingerone and mixtures of zingerone and cue-lure are less attractive than cue-lure alone to male melon flies in the field, and the number of captured flies is positively and linearly correlated to the quantity of cue-lure in traps.
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    In memoriam: Roger Irvin Vargas (1947-2018)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-12-03) Stark, John D. ; Leblanc, Luc ; Mau, Ronald F.L. ; Manoukis, Nicholas C.
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    Catch of the Adult Green Garden Looper, Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Sweetpotato Fields in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-11-27) McQuate, Grant T. ; Sylva, Charmaine D.
    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, was the top volume-producing vegetable crop in Hawaii in 2017. While conducting research on sweetpotato pests in Hawaii, we discovered that the green garden looper, Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday), was present in sweetpotato fields in Hawaii and we had recurrent non-target catch in traps baited with a binary pheromone lure for the sweetpotato vine borer, Omphisa anastomosalis Guenée. The green garden looper caterpillar is a generalist feeder that has the potential to damage a range of both vegetable and ornamental crops in Hawaii. Herein we report on the non-target catch of C. eriosoma, including documenting the effect of spatial trap location and trap height on trap catch. We also demonstrate that a commercially available lure formulated for C. chalcites is an effective detection/monitoring tool for C. eriosoma in Hawaii, as had previously been demonstrated in New Zealand.
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    First Report of African Fig Fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), on the Island of Maui, Hawaii, USA, in 2017 and Potential Impacts to the Hawaiian Entomofauna
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-11-26) Willbrand, Brittany ; Pfeiffer, Douglas ; Leblanc, Luc ; Yassin, Amir
    This report confirms the first reported observation of Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly known as African fig fly, on Maui (new island record). Adult specimens were collected in October and November 2017 while surveying for populations of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Specimens were retrieved from four localities in Haiku and Kula among traps positioned at fruiting height in six host plant environments (orange, lemon, starfruit, banana, strawberry, and cherimoya). Historically, the earliest records of Z. indianus in the state were recorded on Oahu in 2013 (new state record, new island record), on Kauai in 2015 (new island record), and on the Big Island (Hawaii) in 2017 (new island record). Including this report, there are currently at least 33 introduced Drosophilidae species established in the state of Hawaii. Furthermore, it is the second member belonging to genus Zaprionus that has been identified on the Hawaiian Islands. Specimens were not only retrieved from farms and subdivisions but also within mountain ranges and state forest reserves, suggesting that further research is needed to evaluate potential impacts to endemic entomofauna.
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    Does Male Sexual Experience Influence Female Mate Choice and Reproduction in the Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)?
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-09-07) Shelly, Todd E.
    The mating experience of male insects can have significant effects on female fitness, particularly if prior copulations deplete stores of sperm and/or accessory gland products. Females of several tephritid fruit fly species appear to incur a cost - in terms of reduced longevity or reproductive success – by mating with non-virgin over virgin males. Despite these fitness costs, however, females do not always discriminate among males having different sexual experience. The present study had two objectives. First, mating trials were performed to determine whether virgin females of the melon fly Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) discriminated between virgin and non-virgin (thrice-mated) males in selecting a mate. Second, survivorship, egg production and egg hatch rate were measured for females mated to virgin or non-virgin males to assess the impact, if any, of male mating experience on female lifespan and reproduction. Results showed that females did not discriminate among males based on their sexual experience and that female survival and reproduction were unaffected by male mating experience. These findings are compared with results obtained for other tephritid species.
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    Conservation Note on the Status of the Rare Endemic Marquesan Snout Butterfly, Libythea collenettei
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-07-01) Kawahara, Akito Y. ; Toussaint, Emmanuel F.A.
    The Marquesan snout butterfly (Libythea collenettei) also known as “Papillon à museau des Marquises,” is the only endemic butterfly from the Mar- quesas Islands, French Polynesia. The butterfly is known from just five historic records. We report results from an intensive two–week survey in 2018. Our survey took place on the two islands where historic collection records exist (Nuku Hiva and Ua Pou), plus Hiva Oa and Tahiti, where the species has been thought to exist. Despite visiting multiple localities including sites where the species was previously observed, we were unsuccessful at detecting this species. The larval host plant, Celtis pacifica (Cannabaceae), can still be found on the Marquesas, indicating that the butterfly might still exist in the archipelago. Because the phenology of this species is unknown, future surveys should be conducted on the same islands but during different seasons. Given the very restricted geographic range of this species and threats to its habitat, we suggest that it be listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List.
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    Unusual Dark Forms of the Solanum Fruit Fly Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in Hawaii (Tephritidae: Dacini)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-06-04) Doorenweerd, Camiel ; Leblanc, Luc
    The Solanum fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is one of four invasive true fruit flies in Hawaii and primarily attacks peppers, tomatoes and other Solanaceae. The University of Hawaii Insect Museum collections hold a greater variation of forms than was described in the literature, which has likely led to some confusion regarding identification and may reflect greater morphological diversity across the range of the species. The abdomen of B. latifrons was initially described as orange-brown without dark markings and the femora were described as all fulvous. We found varying degrees of dark markings on the abdomen and legs in Hawaiian specimens. This variation is figured and we provide a differential diagnosis based on these new findings. We additionally discuss the consequences for diagnostics of this pest, and the possible synonymy with the Taiwanese endemic B. parvula (Hendel) and Indonesian B. pectoralis (Walker).
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    Entomopathogenic Fungi as Mortality Factors of Macadamia Felted Coccid, Eriococcus ironsidei (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2018-04-27) Gutierrez-Coarite, Rosemary ; Heller, Wade P. ; Wright, Mark G ; Mollinedo, Javier ; Keith, Lisa ; Sugiyama, Lionel ; Chun, Stacey
    Entomopathogenic fungi are considered to play a vital role as a biologi- cal control agent of many insect populations. Different entomopathogenic fungi were observed infecting Eriococcus ironsidei Williams (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) in a macadamia nut orchard in Honokaa, Hawaii. Here, we report the results of the isolation of the unidentified fungal pathogens observed infecting E. ironsidei on macadamia leaves and their identification using molecular techniques. We evaluated the susceptibility of E. ironsidei to the isolated fungi and to one com- mercial formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. To assess whether any of the isolated pathogens have potential to serve as biocontrol agents, E. ironsidei was exposed to isolated fungi. Identified entomopathogens were Chlorocillium griseum and Pleurodesmospora coccorum. Results of this study confirmed that C. griseum, P. coccorum, and B. bassiana cause mortality in E. ironsidei up to 67%, 78%, and 100%, respectively. The present investigation indicates that E. ironsidei is highly susceptible to these fungi and they may have a role in regulating insect pest populations.