Design and Development of Collaboration Technologies

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    Observing Team Collaboration Personality Traits in Undergraduate Software Development Projects
    ( 2019-01-08) Chowdhury, Shuddha ; Walter, Charles ; Gamble, Rose
    Team collaboration is an important aspect of software development. When translated to an undergraduate software engineering class, determining if the team is exhibiting positive collaboration toward successful milestone completion means knowing what actions to reward and when to intervene. Personality traits reflect a person’s tendency toward collaborative behavior. However, it remains a challenge to determine if collaborative traits are effective predictors of team project success. In addition, it is unclear if the traits should be measured at the individual or team level. In this paper we examine team member collaborative personality traits and observe their appearance and relationship to grades at each of three product milestones during an undergraduate software engineering course. We use IBM Watson™ Personality Insights service to process online team conversations. The observed patterns indicate which traits are found in well-performing teams and show how trait manifestation can change during the course of the project.
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    Crowdsourcing Convergence: Aggregating Partial Clusters to Facilitate Collaborative Convergence
    ( 2019-01-08) Helquist, Joel ; Kruse, John ; Diller Ph.D., Christopher
    This paper is an exploratory effort to investigate the possibility of using crowdsourcing to execute part of the collaborative convergence process. Participants were assigned with creating buckets or clusters from a random subset of the overall pool of brainstorming ideas. These sub-sorts were aggregated into a weighted graph and partitioned into discrete buckets. Analysis of this aggregated, consensus sort provides support that crowdsourcing may be a feasible option when organizing brainstorming ideas into discrete categories or buckets.
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    Multi-Organizational Multi-Stakeholder Collaboration Systems: An Exploratory Research Study of Design Concerns in Healthcare
    ( 2019-01-08) Gao, Fangjian ; Briggs, Robert O. ; Thiebes, Scott ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Much Collaboration Engineering research focuses on collaboration systems for teams of five to fifty members. That research can also inform large-scale multi-organizational multi-stakeholder (MO-MS) collaborations such as disaster relief, joint ventures, and healthcare. These larger contexts, though, present design concerns beyond those for smaller teams, and not all these concerns are self-evident. This paper explores the design concerns for IT-supported MO-MS collaboration. We selected the healthcare industry as the first exemplar domain for this inquiry mainly because research shows high potential benefits from, and substantial challenges to implementing systems for collaborative healthcare. We draw on an extensive literature review, and 50 semi-structured interviews with experts to discover and validate collaboration challenges presented by in-house and cloud-based IT services for healthcare. We derive an eleven-class typology of design concerns related to MO-MS collaboration, and derive requirements-elicitation design questions for each class. To demonstrate its utility, we draw on exploratory findings to elaboratethe generalizable typology with design probes specific to healthcare collaboration systems.
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    Discerning the Role Context Plays in the Value of Information
    ( 2019-01-08) Hanratty, Timothy ; Heilman, Eric ; Richardson, John ; Caylor, Justine ; Mittrick, Mark
    For the military, effective human-agent teaming requires a shared understanding between the human and the intelligent agents acting on their behalf. One of the central challenges associated with developing this shared understanding originates at the information level. The simple fact is while all information may be created equal, the value of information is not. Confounding this calculation is the knowledge that the true value of information is dependent not only on its source, content and latency, but just as importantly on the context of the situation in which it is being exercised. Building upon previous research aimed at codifying the value of information, this paper presents a multi-facetted experiment meant to discern a Soldier’s value of information within varying military contexts. Initial results reveal that context plays a significant role in how information is valued and more importantly provides a foundation for strengthening human-agent information understanding and collaboration.
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    Enhancing Group Social Perceptiveness through a Swarm-based Decision-Making Platform
    ( 2019-01-08) Askay, David ; Metcalf, Lynn ; Rosenberg, Louis ; Willcox, Gregg
    Swarm Intelligence is natural phenomenon that enables social animals to make group decisions in real-time systems. This process has been deeply studied in fish schools, bird flocks, and bee swarms, where collective intelligence has been observed to emerge. The present paper describes—a collaborative technology that enables swarms of humans to collectively converge upon a decision as a real-time system. Then we present the results of a study investigating if groups working as “human swarms” can amplify their social perceptiveness, a key predictor of collective intelligence. Results showed that groups reduced their social perceptiveness errors by more than half when operating as a swarm. A statistical analysis revealed with 99.9% confidence that groups working as swarms had significantly higher social perceptiveness than either individuals working alone or through plurality vote.