Blockchain Cases and Innovations

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    Blockchain in Academia: Where do we stand and where do we go?
    ( 2020-01-07) Themistocleous, Marinos ; Christodoulou, Klitos ; Iosif, Elias ; Louca, Soulla ; Tseas, Demetrios
    Blockchain is an emerging exponential technology that disrupts the existing way of doing business. During the last 10 years its importance has been highlighted and many organizations worldwide have embraced it and developed innovative applications. Even though Blockchain has been adopted by many sectors, Universities are reluctant to propose new academic programs on this field at bachelor and postgraduate level and fail to efficiently educate students on Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies. Consequently, universities have failed to investigate the business, technical, legal and other aspects of this technology. As a result, we have the paradox where industry and economy would like to experiment and adopt Blockchain solutions but there is a lack of people with appropriate and adequate skills to work on these solutions. Obviously, this holds back the adoption and the widespread of this technology and currently there are problems in scaling up Blockchain technology. The goal of this paper is to explore the area of Blockchain education and training and propose the structure of a master program that can be used as a model. In doing so, we expand the body of knowledge and we shed light to an important area with limited available information and use cases.
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    Beyond a Blockchain Paradox: How Intermediaries Can Leverage a Disintermediation Technology
    ( 2020-01-07) Abbatemarco, Nico ; De Rossi, Leonardo Maria ; Gaur, Aakanksha ; Salviotti, Gianluca
    New digital technologies are changing the way organizations create and capture value. In particular, blockchain is bringing up opportunities for organizations in terms of transparency and security, and at the same time threatening the position of intermediaries such as banks and notaries. Therefore, intermediaries need to design new business models to generate value from blockchain. Little academic re-search has been conducted to identify the business models that intermediaries could exploit to leverage a disintermediation technology such as blockchain. Employing a qualitative research based on focus group and interviews, this study highlights how a specific intermediary, the Italian notaries, tried to design appropriate business models to derive value from blockchain ecosystems. Specifically, drawing on the key concepts of value configuration, value creation and business model dimensions, this paper identifies three different business models that Italian notaries can implement to create and capture value from permissionless blockchain ecosystems.
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    Blockchain Technology as a Means for Brand Trust Repair – Empirical Evidence from a Digital Transgression
    ( 2020-01-07) Fleischmann, Martin ; Ivens, Bjoern S. ; Krishnamachari, Bhaskar
    Though much discussion in the realm of blockchain revolves around the concept of trust, research examining blockchain technology as a means for brand trust repair is still at an initial stage. This study conducts an experiment that analyzes blockchain technology as a substantive response to a data breach within a global business-to-consumer information systems application. Thereby, the present study expands trust repair theories to the context of blockchain and branding. Research results indicate that the use of blockchain technology as a reaction to a digital transgression may be able to reinstate brand trust, having a superior impact compared to an approach that uses a centrally managed information systems platform to restore brand trust. Overall, study results suggest that the use of blockchain technology can be an effective component of brand trust repair strategies in the digital space.
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    Hot or Cold . . . How Ready are Third Party Logistics Cold Storage Companies to Implement Blockchain?
    ( 2020-01-07) Johnson, Anna ; Mccurdy, Denise ; Schechter, Daphne ; Loch, Karen
    The espoused benefits of the transformative blockchain technology appear to be the perfect solution for third party logistics cold storage companies who are facing a myriad of pressing organizational and industry issues. A critical component for successful implementation is organizational readiness. Positive (negative) states of readiness lead to more (less) successful implementation. A multi-case study of three 3rd party cold storage supply chain companies varied by size examine what factors impact their readiness for blockchain, and to what extent size may impact their preparedness. Results show that the small and medium companies have a relatively low level of readiness to implement blockchain. Due to its robust change management structure, the large company was best positioned to adopt blockchain. We conclude with a discussion of coopetition, the need to collaborate in a blockchain world.
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    Bridges Between Islands: Cross-Chain Technology for Distributed Ledger Technology
    ( 2020-01-07) Kannengießer, Niclas ; Pfister, Michelle ; Greulich, Malte ; Lins, Sebastian ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Since the emergence of blockchain in 2008, today, we see a kaleidoscopic variety of applications built on distributed ledger technology (DLT), including applications for financial services, healthcare, or the Internet of Things. Yet, each application comes with specific requirements for DLT characteristics (e.g., high throughput, scalability). However, trade-offs between DLT characteristics restrict the development of a DLT design (e.g., Ethereum, IOTA) that fits all use cases’ requirements simultaneously. Consequently, separated DLT designs emerged, each specialized to suite dedicated application requirements. To enable the development of more powerful applications on DLT, such DLT islands must be bridged. However, knowledge on cross-chain technology (CCT) is scattered across scientific and practical sources. Therefore, we examine this diverse body of knowledge and provide comprehensive insights into CCT by synthesizing underlying characteristics, evolving patterns, and use cases. Our findings resolve existing contradictions in the literature and provide avenues for future research in an emerging scientific field.
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    Distributed Ledger Technology for the systematic Investigation and Reduction of Information Asymmetry in Collaborative Networks
    ( 2020-01-07) Schinle, Markus ; Erler, Christina ; Stork, Wilhelm
    Costs, risks and inefficiencies in Collaborative Networks (CNs) resulting from information asymmetries have been discussed in the scientific community for years. In this work, supply chain networks, as common representative of CNs, are used as object of investigation. Therein, problems and requirements of interorganizational information exchange are elaborated as well as the potential role Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) could play to address them. As major challenge, convincing all relevant network partners to resolve asymmetric information by sharing sensitive data is identified. To face this issue, the value of shared information is prioritized as a motivational aspect. Finally, we propose a search process to systematically assess the benefits of information sharing in collaborative networks. To coordinate and implement this process regarding the derived requirements of CNs we propose system components based on DLT design patterns.
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    Formal Verification of Functional Requirements for Smart Contract Compositions in Supply Chain Management Systems
    ( 2020-01-07) Alqahtani, Sarra ; He, Xinchi ; Gamble, Rose ; Mauricio, Papa
    The smart contract technology has increasingly attracted the attention of different industries. However, a significant number of smart contracts deployed in practice suffer from several bugs, which enable malicious users to cause damage. The research community has shifted their focus to verifying the correctness of smart contracts using model checkers and formal verification methods. The majority of the research investigates the correctness of systems built on one smart contract. This paper proposes a verification approach for systems composed of interacting smart contracts developed and controlled by different entities. We use the NuSMV model checker and the Behavioral Interaction Priority tool to model the behaviors of smart contracts and their interactions with the aim of verifying their compliance with the systems’ functional requirements. These requirements are formalized by Linear Temporal Logic propositions. The applicability of our approach is illustrated using a case study from The American Petroleum Institute and implemented using Hyperledger Fabric.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Blockchain Cases and Innovations
    ( 2020-01-07) Da Cunha, Paulo ; Themistocleous, Marinos ; Christodoulou, Klitos