Volume 47 - December 2015 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Matsunaga, Janis
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    Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc Vol 47 Index
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12)
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    Expansion of Lobate Lac Scale Distribution into Oahu Forest Systems
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Kaufman, Leyla V. ; Higashi, Clesson H.V.
    The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina pseudolobata, was detected on Oahu in October 2012 at a botanical garden, located in the vicinity of the Hono- lulu International Airport. Early surveys done by HDOA and DLNR staff in the vicinity of detection areas and nearby forest reserves detected the scale on several species, including some native species. Given that the extent of lobate lac scale infestation was currently unknown on Oahu, a preliminary survey was carried out to update the host and habitat range of this invasive species in Oahu’s native forests. Our surveys detected P. pseudolobata on four new native and three non- native host plants. The information collected from this survey will help determine the need for appropriate management efforts to avoid severe impacts and/or the loss of native species in Hawaii native ecosystems.
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    Daphnis placida, a New Species of Sphinx Moth for Guam, U.S.A.
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Rubinoff, Daniel ; Kitching, Ian
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    Field Test for Repellency of Cedarwood Oil and Cedrol to Little Fire Ants
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Eller, Fred J. ; Fezza, T. ; Jang, Eric B. ; Palmquist, D.E.
    Eastern redcedars (Juniperus virginiana L.) are an abundant renew- able resource and represent a potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. The aromatic wood can be extracted to obtain cedarwood oil (CWO) and critical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction of eastern redcedars gives both high yields and high quality CWO. In this study, CO2-derived CWO and cedrol, the most abundant component of CWO, were field-tested for repellency against the little fire ant (LFA), Wasmannia auropunctata Roger, in a Hawaiian macadamia orchard. Field tests were conducted using chopsticks baited with peanut-butter placed in established LFA trails on macadamia tree trunks and branches. The chopsticks and any ants present were collected after ca. 24 hours and the number of ants determined by visual counting. Four treatments were compared: Hexane only control; mineral oil; CWO; and cedrol. Control chopsticks and chopsticks treated with mineral oil had very high numbers of ants and were statistically equivalent. The CWO-treated chopsticks had significantly fewer LFAs than all the other treatments. Chopsticks treated with cedrol had fewer ants than the control chopsticks but more than the chopsticks treated with CWO. This research suggests that CWO extracts from J. virginianna may provide a renewable source of a natural ant repellent and could help manage this invasive pest.
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    Attraction of Lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Asia
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Leblanc, Luc ; San Jose, Michael ; Bhandari, Bishnu P. ; Tauber, Catherine A. ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    The attraction of Ankylopteryx exquisita (Nakahara) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) to the fruit fly male lure methyl eugenol was observed during fly surveys in Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, Taiwan, and Thailand. All of the 622 adults attracted to the lure were male.
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    A Survey of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) and their Opiine Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Palau
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Leblanc, Luc ; Fay, Harry ; Sengebau, Fernando ; San Jose, Michael ; Rubinoff, Daniel ; Pereira, Rui
    Surveys for fruit flies and their parasitoids, conducted by male lure trapping and host fruit sampling in 2001, 2013, and 2014, demonstrate that the agricultural pests Bactrocera dorsalis, B. frauenfeldi, and B. umbrosa and non- economic B. calophylli (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are present and widespread in Palau. The COI gene haplotype networks and aedeagus measurements of B. dorsalis, detected in Palau in 1996, suggest that it is most likely of Philippine origin. Bactrocera occipitalis, previously reported from Palau, was not collected during these surveys, and is probably absent. Fopius arisanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae) was reared from fruit containing parasitized larval fruit flies. Parasitism was low (3.4-11.7%), compared to Hawaii or French Polynesia, where F. arisanus has lowered populations of B. dorsalis.
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    Release and Establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) Against White Peach Scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Papaya
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Follett, Peter ; Neumann, Gabor ; Hollingsworth, Robert ; Swedman, Allison ; Sibucao, Ross
    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozetti) (He- miptera: Diaspididae) is a serious economic and quarantine pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Western Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release against white peach scale. E. diaspidicola was considered an ideal biological control candidate for release in Hawaii because it is reportedly highly host specific. Host range testing in quarantine with several exotic diaspidids and related taxa, including a native palm scale, indicated that E. dispidicola is unlikely to attack non-target species or cause harm to the environment if released for control of white peach scale in Hawaii. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture and USDA APHIS issued permits for its release. Releases of E. diaspidicola were made beginning in February 2013 in a papaya field in Kapoho on the Big Island. Yellow sticky trap monitoring suggests that the wasp has established in the area of release. Infested papaya logs are being used to spread the wasp to new areas.
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    Contribution of Insect Pollination to Macadamia integrifolia Production in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Tavares, Jane M. ; Villalobos, Ethel M. ; Wright, Mark G.
    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is commonly accepted to be an important pollinator in many agricultural crop systems in Hawaii. However, specific details on the importance of A. mellifera, along with other insect visitors have not been determined for macadamia nut orchards in Hawaii. Reductions in feral honeybee populations in Hawaii attributable to invasions by varroa mites (Varroa destruc- tor) and small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) have resulted in growers becoming dependent on managed bees, requiring increased understanding of the role they play as pollinators. Several parameters determining the contributions of insect pollinators in macadamia nuts were measured: (1) species richness and abun- dance of insects visiting macadamia flowers, (2) the effects of insect pollination in regards to fruit set, fruit retention, fruit size, and weight, and (3) insect pollen removal efficacy based on the mean number of pollen grains an individual insect removed from the stigma while foraging on a macadamia flower. The results from data collected in the study orchard showed that while the order Diptera ranked highest in species richness (9 species), A. mellifera was the most abundant species visiting the macadamia inflorescences (62.7% in abundance, with an average of 17 honeybees seen per 15 minutes compared to 8 flies per 15 minutes). Inflores- cences that were accessible to insects for pollination produced higher fruit sets and yield compared to inflorescences from which insect visitation was excluded. Abundance, foraging behavior and stigma contact, suggested that honeybees are the greatest contributors to macadamia nut pollination over other insects observed in the orchard. The hoverflies (Syrphidae) observed in the orchard may have con- tributed to pollination, but likely to a lesser extent than the honeybees due to the low abundance of the flies.
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    Effect of Pupal Holding Density on Emergence Rate, Flight Ability, and Yield of Sterile Male Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2015-12) Andress, Earl ; War, Mamadou ; Shelly, Todd
    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is commonly used to suppress or eradicate infestations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (or medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Flies are mass-produced, sterilized, and shipped as pupae from the production facility to an eclosion and release facility. Pupae, and then emerging adults, are stored in eclosion towers consisting of 40–60 horizontally stacked, screen-paneled trays. In California, each tray is stocked with 350 ml of pupae, but this amount (the “pupal loading”) varies among medfly SIT programs. Moreover, there exist no published reports regarding the potential impact of pupal loading on the performance of the adult sterile males. The goal of the present study was to compare two parameters—adult emergence and flight ability—across three pupal loadings, i.e., 250, 350, and 450 ml per tray. Two separate experiments were conducted at the eclosion-release facility in Los Alamitos, CA, which receives sterilized pupae from both Guatemala (Gflies) and Hawaii (Hflies). Results from both experiments revealed a negative impact of pupal loading level on flight abil- ity, with a greater decline noted for Gflies than Hflies. Emergence rate was not affected markedly. The number of fliers produced per tower increased with pupal loading level of the constituent trays, but importantly the proportion of pupae that produced flight-capable was significantly lower for the 450 ml pupal loading level than the 250 or 350 ml pupal loading levels. Implications of these results for medfly SIT programs are discussed.