Volume 42 - December 2010 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    A Survey of Fly Occurrence and Breeding in Leeward Kohala, Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Yang, Pingjun ; Rapozo, Joni ; Asuncion, Bernard A.
    A survey of fly occurrence and incidence of fly breeding in leeward Ko- hala, Hawaii, was conducted between August and November, 2007. The survey areas included four state parks and 13 ranches near the coastline. This study found that the occurrence of two major species of flies, Tricharaea occidua (a flesh fly) and Musca sorbens (dog dung fly) within the complaint areas corresponded with the breeding of flies at the ranches nearby; and T. occidua was the principal inhabitant in cattle, horse, and mule dung at the ranches.
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    Life History and Host Range of Hawaii’s Endangered Blackburn’s Sphinx Moth (Manduca blackburni Butler)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Rubinoff, Daniel ; San Hose, Michael
    Manduca blackburni, Blackburn’s sphinx moth (BSM), is a federally listed endangered species endemic to Hawaii. Originally found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands, it has disappeared from most of its range, and is now restricted to small localized populations on the islands of Maui, Hawaii, and Kahoolawe. While the adult and last instar larvae are described, the early life stages of BSM have not previously been figured. Further, the host range of the moth is not known, though it is suspected to feed on a wide range of solanaceous plants. Eggs and larvae of M. blackburni were collected from East Maui and reared on both native and invasive solanaceous hosts to examine host specificity in the context of habitat restoration and the importance of new invasive hosts to BSM populations. Larvae developed on several native and introduced solanaceous species. We present the first published descriptions of the early larval instars, and confirmation of several suitable hosts, both native and exotic. Low rates of parasitism in our field collections suggest that, at least in some areas, parasitoids may not severely impact populations, and these areas could be important refugia for BSM. Rearing efforts confirm that at least two species of native Solanum, in addition to Nothocestrum, can be used in site restoration as potential host plants.
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    Potential for Metabolic Stress Disinfection and Disinfestation (MSDD) Treatment to Disinfest Commodities of White Peach Scale and other Surface Pests
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Alevalo-Galarza, Lourdes ; Neumann, Gabor ; Follett, Peter A.
    Metabolic stress disinfection and disinfestation (MSDD) is a postharvest treatment that combines short periods of low pressure (vacuum) and elevated CO2 with ethanol vapor to control pathogens and arthropod pests on commodities. The system was tested against white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Diaspididae), a serious pest of papaya in Hawaii. Treatment with low pressure (125 mm Hg) and high CO2 (>99%) alone had no effect on mortality of second stage nymphs, whereas a combination of low pressure, high CO2 and ethanol vapor (75 mg l-1) killed 98% of the individuals tested. This combination treatment has potential to disinfest fresh commodities of surface pests.
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    Tephritid Fruit Fly Populations in a Dragonfruit Orchard in Hawaii: Border Plant Use and Infestation Rate
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) McQuate, Grant T.
    Dragonfruit, Hylocereus undatus, has been grown commercially in Southeast Asia, Australia, South America, Israel, and the United States. In Hawaii, commercial fruit production has recently begun, based on newly introduced varieties. Dragonfruit originating from Vietnam but intercepted in Japan has been found to be infested by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae. Because both of these tephritid fruit fly species are present in Hawaii, there is risk of infestation by these species in Hawaii, and fruit export requires postharvest quarantine treatment for disinfestation. For dragonfruit production in Hawaii intended both for local sales and for export, there is a need to better understand the risk of infestation and to develop approaches to minimize chances of infestation. In support of the development of dragonfruit as a commercial crop in Hawaii, a dragonfruit orchard on the east side of the island of Hawaii was monitored over the 2007–2008 fruiting seasons in order to document the levels and spatial distribution of tephritid fruit fly field populations and the level of infestation, and to develop approaches for suppression of infestation. Low population levels (< 0.25 flies/trap/day) of both tephritid fruit fly species were present both seasons, with population detection most successful in traps placed in roosting host plants along the orchard border rather than within the orchard. Based on random fruit collections near the end of the production seasons, infestation rate in mature fruits increased from 4.1% and 6.1% (2007) to 28.0% and 8.0% (2008) for oriental fruit fly and melon fly, respectively. Approach to field suppression in this crop, which lacks host foliage, is discussed.
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    Testing the Efficacy of Aromatherapy at the World’s Largest Eclosion Facility for Sterile Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Shelly, Todd ; Rendon, Pedro ; Moscoso, Francisco ; Menendez, Raul
    Exposure to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) increases the mating competitiveness of adult sterile males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This effect has been observed under various exposure regimes, ranging from small groups of males (25 individuals) held in small cups to large numbers of males (14 million individuals) held in trailers. Here, we assess the efficacy of GRO treatment at an even larger scale at the world’s largest eclosion facility for sterile male medflies located in Retalhuleu, Guatemala. GRO exposure was conducted in several different holding rooms each with a particular dose (0.37–0.91 ml GRO per m3 room volume) and each with a unique number of sterile males (59–127 million adult males per room). Treated sterile males were exposed to GRO at 3 d of age for 24 h and then held 24 h before testing. Control sterile males were tested at the same age as treated males but were held in rooms not receiving GRO application. In field tents, we released 50 sterile males (treated or control), 50 wild males, and 50 wild females and collected copulating pairs. Over all trials, control sterile males obtained 19%–26% of the total matings per replicate, whereas treated sterile males obtained significantly higher proportions of the total matings (34%–41%) for all doses tested. Among treated sterile males, relative mating success did not vary significantly with GRO dose. These findings suggest that the use of GRO aromatherapy in the large holding rooms in the Retalhuleu facility will substantially enhance the mating competitiveness of the sterile male medflies.
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    Eradicating Wasmannia auropunctata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Maui, Hawaii: The Use of Combination Treatments to Control an Arboreal Invasive Ant
    ( 2010-12) Vanderwoude, Cas ; Onuma, Kyle ; Reimer, Neil
    A small infestation of Wasmannia auropunctata (little fire ant) was discov- ered on the island of Maui, Hawaii in September 2009. After delimiting the infestation, we treated it on twelve occasions over the course of a year using two types of granular baits for the ground layer and a paste bait containing indoxacarb (0.18% a.i.) on the vegetation. These treatments rapidly reduced the W. auropunctata population with only a single ant recorded after five months treatment and none thereafter. To date, one year after initiation of treatments, no further positive detections have been observed and we tentatively report the eradication of this species from Maui. The key components of the treatment program contributing to its success to date have been the baiting of arboreal nests with a formulation designed for use on vegetation and the strategy of baiting repeatedly even after no ants could be detected with conventional survey methods. The response to the detection of this invasive species on Maui is a successful example of multi-agency collaboration and cooperation necessary for invasive species management. We recommend that future eradication and control attempts for this species include treatment of the arboreal components of infested habitats.
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    A Comparison of Nontarget Captures in BioLure and Liquid Protein Food Lures in Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Leblanc, Luc ; Vargas, Roger I. ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    MultiLure traps baited with three different food attractants for tephritid fruit flies (3-component BioLure, solulys and torula yeast) captured a broad diversity of nontarget insects, dominated by the Drosophilidae, Cecidomyiidae, Ceratopogonidae, Chloropidae, Neriidae, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Corylophidae, in endemic and nonnative forests as well as in farmland, on Hawaii Island. Overall nontarget captures were highest for BioLure, followed by solulys and torula yeast, but differed among taxonomic groups. Attraction to torula yeast was, however, probably inhibited by the addition of propylene glycol to traps. Endemic nontargets, mainly Drosophilidae and Calliphoridae (Dyscritomyia spp) were trapped in large numin native forest, but seldom captured in nonnative forest or agricultural habitats.
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    Distribution and Abundance of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) in Five Districts on the Island of Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Larish, Linda B. ; Yang, Pingjun ; Asuncion, Bernard A.
    Subsequent to the detection of Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theo- bald) on the island of Hawaii, a survey was conducted over the span of twelve months from June 2005 until June 2006, to determine its distribution and abundance on the island. Ae. j. japonicus was the third most abundant species encountered employing gravid traps and the fourth most abundant using New Jersey light traps in the districts surveyed. In addition, gravid mosquito traps which used a bait of infused leaf detwere more effective at catching Ae. j. japonicus than New Jersey light traps.
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    Capture of Bactrocera Males (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Parapheromone-Baited Traps: A Comparison of Liquid versus Solid Formulations
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2010-12) Shelly, Tood E.
    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Teph- ritidae) are important agricultural pests of the Pacific region. Detection and control of these species rely largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants (parapheromones), namely cue lure for B. cucurbitae and methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Presently, these lures (plus naled, an insecticide) are applied in liquid form, although this procedure is time-consuming, and naled as well as methyl eugenol may pose human health risks. Recently, a solid formulation (termed a wafer) has been developed that contains both chemicals (plus DDVP, an insecticide), and here we present data from field tests that compare the effectiveness of liquid versus solid formulations of the lures in attracting males of these two Bactrocera species. Trapping in two areas of Oahu, Hawaii, yielded consistent results: Jackson traps baited with wafers captured (1) similar numbers of B. cucurbitae males and (2) significantly greater numbers of B. dorsalis males than Jackson traps baited with standard liquid lures. Additional tests examined the effect of ageing on the attractiveness of the wafers and revealed that Jackson traps baited with wafers aged for 6 or 8 weeks captured similar or significantly more males of both Bactrocera species than Jackson traps baited with fresh liquid lures.