Pacific Science Volume 23, Number 4, 1969

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    23: Index - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969)
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    Notes. A Note on the Genus Drosophilella Duda (Diptera; Drosophilidae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Wheeler, Marshall R.
    The generic name Drosophilella was first published by Duda (1923:25) in the combination "Drosophilella seminigra n.sp." D. seminigra, then, is the type species by monotypy. However, he apparently intended to publish it as a new genus, with two new species, in another article, written earlier but published a year later (Duda, 1924a). The two species were D. seminigra and D. colocasiae, the former from Friedrich-Wilhelmshafen (now Madang), New Guinea, and the latter from Nongkodjadjar, Java, collected from the plant Colocasia antiquarum (Schott).
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    Monograph of the Hawaiian Species of Gouania (Rhamnaceae). Hawaiian Plant Studies 34
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) St. John, Harold
    The genus Gouania was early noted as a part of the Hawaiian flora by F. J. F. Meyen (1835), and he described a new species, basing it upon his own collection made on Diamond Head, Oahu, in 1831. He published the species in his narrative (1835:150) as G. integrifolia, but this epithet was a homonym of the earlier one for another species by Lamarck. When Walpers prepared the botanical report on the collections of this voyage of the "Prinzess Louise," he realized that Meyen's binomial was unavailable, so published it anew (1843:323) as Gossania orbicularis. There was no existing genus Gossania, and it is evident that no new genus was intended. The generic name was apparently the printer's attempt to reproduce the author's handwriting, and it was not corrected in proofreading. It is apparent that Walpers intended to publish the binomial Gouania orbicularis. It was so listed in the Index Kewensis, and this rendering seems to be correct. However, this second binomial was unnecessary, as in 1840 Steude1 had already published for it the valid name Gouania Meyeni (Steudel, 1840:703).
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    Distribution and Characteristics of Dikes in the Southeast Part of the Koolau Range, Oahu
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Bigelow, Gordon E.
    Exposed dikes and sills trending southwest and roughly perpendicular to the primary Koolau rift zone in the Waialae-Palolo area of Oahu are hypersthenebearing tholeiitic rocks, intrusive equivalents of the Koolau Series basalt flows. No Honolulu Series intrusives were located along a line joining Kaau Crater, Mauumae, Kaimuki, and Diamond Head, a secondary rift of the Koolau volcano. Mineralogy of the Koolau intrusives displays a striking chemical and morphological constancy. Feldspar crystals in these rocks show antipathy to ore inclusions. Cumuloporphyritic texture is strongly developed and may be related to flow patterns evident in groundmass minerals.
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    Variation of Sodium and Chloride Concentrations with Rainfall Intensity in Hawaiian Trade Wind Showers
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Duce, Robert A. ; Seto, Yuk-Bon ; Moyers, Jarvis L.
    The variation of sodium and chloride concentrations with rainfall intensity in Hawaii was investigated in 13 trade wind showers. The variation was found to be inversely dependent on rainfall intensity, although the ratio of Na to Cl appeared to be independent of the intensity. Several factors which may affect the dependence of concentration on rainfall intensity are discussed, and it is concluded that: (1) washout and evaporation, more than any process which may occur within the cloud, are the dominant factors in increasing the salinity of the small raindrops collected below the cloud base, and (2) exchange of gaseous and dissolved chlorine is a minor factor affecting the variation of chloride concentration with rainfall intensity.
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    Paleontological Analyses of North Pacific Ocean-Bottom Cores
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Thomas, Charles W.
    Three North Pacific ocean-bottom cores were studied. Core No.1 was taken on the rim of the Aleutian Trench, south of Attu Island; core NO.2, about 140 miles south of Attu Island; and core No.8, on the Marcus-Necker Ridge. The upper 40 em of core No. 1 is almost entirely organic material and the remainder of the 315-cm core is predominantly glacial marine sediments. Climatic conditions and source of clastics are inferred. Core No. 2 was of virtually no stratigraphic value, due to the reworking of the sediments. The upper 200 cm of core No. 8 were analyzed, dated, and correlated with other low-latitude cores, with core NO.1, and with cores from the central Arctic Ocean studied by Soviet scientists. A foraminiferan generally believed to be Tertiary was found in association with Pleistocene foraminiferan species. The analyses confirm the basic premise of the Ewing and Donn theory of ice ages, and suggest that stadial intervals are mainly ones of slow glacial wastage.
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    Ecology of Tridacna in Palau
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Hardy, John T. ; Hardy, Sheila A.
    Species composition, distribution, standing crop biomass, spawning, and growth rate of Tridacnidae clams were studied in Palau, Western Caroline Islands. The population was composed of six species: Tridama gigas, T. derasa, T. squamosa, T. maxima, T. crocea, and Hippopus hippopus. In random transects, T. crocea was the most frequent and abundant, while T. derasa and T. gigas made up the largest proportion of the standing crop biomass. Spawning was induced artificially in T. squamosa by addition of macerated gonad from one individual to an aquarium containing other individuals, but larval development was not observed. The growth rate of tagged Tridacnidae was slow and further study will be required before an estimate of biomass production can be derived.
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    Origin of Concentric Banding in the Spines of the Tropical Echinoid Heterocentrotus
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Weber, Jon N.
    The concentric bands or rings which are evident in transverse sections of echinoid spines have attracted the interest of biologists for more than a hundred years. First, the basic cause of ring formation remains obscure although at least two controversial hypotheses have been proposed, and elucidation of the ring-forming mechanism is important to a better understanding of the general processes involved in growth. Second, there is a practical aspect to the "growthring problem" because, if the number of rings in a spine is closely and directly related to the age of the animal, killing the urchin for age determination is obviated, thus facilitating ecological, population, and other practical studies in marine research.
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    Growth and Longevity of Some Calcareous Fouling Organisms, Monterey Bay, California
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1969-10) Smith, Stephen V. ; Haderlie, Eugene C.
    A knowledge of the lifespan of an organism is of value in understanding its life history. Ecological succession, including rates and characteristics of marine fouling, may be related to organism longevity. Organic production can be evaluated from growth and longevity data (e.g., Thorson, 1957). Our longevity analysis was undertaken as part of an evaluation of rates of biogenic sediment production by calcareous organisms.
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