Pacific Science Volume 20, Number 1, 1966

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
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    The Rise of Sea Level in Contemporary Times at Honaunau, Kona, Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Apple, Russell A. ; MacDonald, Gordon A.
    Bait cups, net-tanning tubs, and playing boards for the checker-like game of konani, which were hollowed out by the ancient Hawaiians on the surface of pahoehoe lava flows a short distance above sea level at the City of Refuge, Honaunau, Hawaii, are now submerged and unusable for their original purpose. Increased depth of water over the traditional land route used in approaching the place of refuge, comparisons of old and new photographs, and increasing storm damage to structures, also indicate a relative sinking of the shore, at a rate of about 1 ft per century. The sinking is endangering some of the structures, and imposes a special problem in the preservation of the area. Other evidence indicates sinking of other parts of the island of Hawaii, but by less definite amounts. The rate of change of relative level of land and sea at Honaunau is much greater than that of world wide change of sea level, and must be the result of actual sinking of the island. The logical explanation lies in isostatic adjustment resulting from loading of the earth's crust by the great added mass of the volcanoes. The southern part of the island of Hawaii appears to be sinking isostatically at a rate of about 8 or 9 inches a century.
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    Desilication of Halloysite and Its Relation to Gibbsite Formation
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Uehara, Goro ; Ikawa, Haruyoshi ; Sherman, G.D.
    The evidence presented points to the alteration of halloysite to gibbsite. Mineralogical data, as determined by X-ray and differential analysis, verify identification of halloysite and gibbsite. Chemical data confirm the expected lower silica and higher alumina content for samples which are predominantly gibbsitic. It is reasonable to assume from petrographic evidence that gibbsite develops by desilicarion of halloysite. Halloysite amygdules undergo desilication along the outer peripheries, where acid silica-deficient waters pass, attacking the halloysite by dissolving silica. Halloysite is stable only if it is protected from such solutions, or if the solution passing by is saturated with silica. Whereas alteration of feldspar to halloysite involves a gain in volume, a loss in volume follows desilication of halloysite. This loss in volume is exemplified by the surface cracks clearly visible in the desilicated halloysite.
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    An Anatomical Study of the Hawaiian Fern Adenophorus sarmentosus
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Wilson, Kenneth A. ; Rickson, Fred R.
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    Studies of Food Preference in Algivorous Invertebrates of Southern California Kelp Beds
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Leighton, David L.
    Stands of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, frequently suffer attack by grazing organisms and in some cases complete destruction has been observed. The present investigation of the feeding habits of grazing organisms is primarily concerned with food preferences. Discrimination in choice of plant foods was examined in 11 common invertebrate species of the sublittoral rock bottom fauna of southern California by measuring the differential consumption of seven common algal species in the laboratory. The algae were selected as representing the major floral elements of the kelp bed (Macrocystis pyrifera) community. All of the grazers exhibited high degrees of preference for Macrocystis. Shallow water grazers revealed stronger preferences for Egregia than for Macrocystis. Herbivores found at greater depths indicated strongest preferences for Macrocystis, Laminaria, and Pterygophora, plants that are generally common at these depths . The deepest-living herbivore, Lytechinus, showed greatest preference for a red alga, Gigartina; red algae generally supplant brown algae in dominance at greater depths. Some of the invertebrates refused certain of the marine plants. A specific distaste factor may exist in these cases.
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    Two New Mites (Acarina: Laelapinae) from Oriental Insectivores (Mammalia: Insectivora)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Jameson, E.W. Jr.
    The two species described are closely allied parasites of shrews (Anourosorex squamipes and Soriculus fumidus) from Taiwan, and of a mole (Urotrichus talpoides) from Japan (Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu). The similarity of these two species indicates a common geographic origin of the hosts, and suggests that there are probably allied species of these mites on the Chinese mainland. These two species of Haemolaelaps appear most closely related to the ulysses group, three species from Australian marsupials.
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    Histogenesis in Roots of Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (Hook. f.) Poole
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Arnold, B.C.
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    Ellobiopsidae of Alaskan Coastal Waters
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Hoffman, Ethelwyn G. ; Yancey, Robert M.
    Four species of ellobiopsids were taken in Alaskan coastal waters. Thalassomyces fagei (a synonym of Amallocystis fagei) was found to parasitize specimens of the euphausid Thysanoessa raschii taken in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. The development of T. fagei external to the host from a small knob to the mature form was found to occur by repeated dichotomous branching. T. fagei occurred during April and May hut was not observed at other times of the year. Thalassomyces sp. was found to be parasitic on specimens of the mysid Acanthomysis pseudomacropsis taken in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. The range of Thalassomyces capillosus, parasitic on the caridean Pasiphaea pacifica, is extended from Coos Bay, Oregon, to Orca Bay, Prince William Sound, Alaska. Ellobiopsis chattoni was found to parasitize the copepod Metridia longa, a new host of this ellobiopsid. Specimens of E. chattoni were taken in the waters of southeastern Alaska, extending the range of E. chattoni from the Atlantic to the north Pacific.
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    New Fish Records from Hawaii: Hime, Pikea, and Omobranchus
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1966-01) Strasburg, Donald W.
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