Pacific Science, Volume 65, Number 3, 2011

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    Additions to the Myxomycetes of Singapore
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-07) Rosing, Wayne C. ; Mitchell, David W. ; Moreno, Gabriel ; Stephenson, Steven L.
    Much of Southeast Asia remains understudied for myxomycetes ( plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids). This survey of myxomycetes was carried out at 12 study sites throughout Singapore during March 2009. Sporocarps that developed in moist-chamber cultures of bark, forest floor litter, and aerial litter were used to supplement field collections. In addition, a series of samples of various types of plant litter collected from one other study site during the summer of 2004 was processed for myxomycetes. Collectively, these efforts yielded 76 species of myxomycetes in 26 genera. Thirty-six species are new records for Singapore. The latter includes two previously unpublished records along with one collection of Didymium and one collection of Trichia that could not be assigned to any known species.
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    Origin of the Helminth Community of an Exotic Invasive Lizard, the Brown Anole, Anolis sagrei (Squamata: Polychrotidae), in Southwestern Taiwan
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-07) Norval, Gerrut ; Bursey, Charles R. ; Goldberg, Stephen R. ; Mao, Jean-Jay ; Slater, Kerry
    Composition of the helminth community of the brown anole, Anolis sagrei, an exotic invasive species in Taiwan, was studied to identify the emigration point of this lizard. A total of 5,757 helminths was found, of which 5,734 (99.6%) were the nematode Cyrtosomum penneri. Also found were the digenean Mesocoelium monas (21, 0.4%) and one each of the nematodes Parapharyngodon sp. (female) and Acuariidae gen. sp. (larva). Cyrtosomum penneri has previously been reported in A. sagrei in Florida, supporting the contention that the Taiwan population of A. sagrei originated from Florida. This report provides a basis upon which future A. sagrei parasite studies in Taiwan can be based, and a helminth list for A. sagrei is included for future reference.
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    Marine Sponges, Other Animal Food, and Nonfood Items Found in Digestive Tracts of the Herbivorous Marine Turtle Chelonia mydas in Hawai‘i
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-07) Russell, Dennis J. ; Hargrove, Stacy ; Balazs, George H.
    Although the usual diet of Chelonia mydas comes from algae and sea grasses (plant material), animal material has been found in samples taken over the past 35 yr. The small black-brown protein sponge Chondrosia chucalla resembles the alga Codium arabicum in size, color, and texture, and both grow next to each other on the reefs. We hypothesize that turtles are actively seeking and eating these sponges and not mistaking them for C. arabicum. Both protein and silica sponges occur in the diet of Chelonia, but only 6.8% of the time are eaten in addition to their usual plant diet. Thirty different kinds of other animals were found in the samples, including Cnidaria, Mollusca, Crustacea, Insecta, Echinodermata, squid, fish, tumor flesh, and other animals but in low frequency (5%). Most of the miscellaneous nonfood debris items were terrestrial leaves, plastic, paper, string, fibers, hair, and paint chips but also in low frequency (<7%). Among animal food items known to have nutritional value, the protein sponge C. chucalla could be contributing an important nutritive factor, but this needs further research.
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    First Documented Attack on a Live Human by a Cookiecutter Shark (Squaliformes, Dalatiidae: Isistius sp.)
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-07) Honebrink, Randy ; Buch, Robert ; Galpin, Peter ; Burgess, George H.
    An adult long-distance swimmer attempting to cross the ‘Alenuihähä Channel between the Hawaiian islands of Hawai‘i and Maui was twice bitten by a cookiecutter shark (Squaliformes, Dalatiidae, Isistius sp.). One of these bites presented as an open, round, concave wound typically observed in cookiecutter shark bites inflicted by members of this genus on a broad spectrum of large biota such as marine mammals, elasmobranchs, and bony fishes. The open wound was debrided, subjected to negative pressure wound therapy, and a split thickness skin graft harvested from the left thigh. Postoperative recovery was complicated by delayed healing of the inferior portion of the graft, and cultures and biopsy were normal skin flora and normal tissue, respectively. At 6 months after the incident, the area appeared to be healing with a stable eschar, and by 9 months the wound was healed. Humans entering pelagic waters at twilight and nighttime hours in areas of Isistius sp. occurrence should do so knowing that cookiecutter sharks are a potential danger, particularly during periods of strong moonlight, in areas of man-made illumination, or in the presence of bioluminescent organisms.
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    Biological Characteristics of the Spotcheek Emperor, Lethrinus rubrioperculatus, in the Northern Mariana Islands
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-07) Trianni, Michael S.
    As a result of commencement of an incipient commercial fishery in the southern islands (SI) of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), biological characteristics for the spotcheek emperor, Lethrinus rubrioperculatus, were estimated from the CNMI SI, including seasonality of spawning, sex ratios, length at sexual maturity (LM), length at transition (LT) to male phase, age, and growth. LM and LT estimates corresponded to ages of 1 and 3 – 4 yr, respectively, and are important in managing hermaphroditic species such as the spotcheek emperor by ensuring that fishery size selection does not significantly reduce effective stock reproduction. Age of the oldest fish was 8 yr, with South Southern Islands (SSI) fish mostly 0 – 2 yr old and North Southern Islands ( NSI) fish 1 – 4 yr old. Average size of 0-age fish was 22.2 cm fork length (LF) from the SSI and 18.7 cm LF from the NSI, indicating an initial high growth rate not captured by specimen collection. Growth curves for the NSI and SSI weresignificantly different at the 5% level. Age and growth parameters were estimated using age- and length-based methods, which resulted in similar values for instantaneous growth coefficient (k) and asymptotic length (L∞). Results support further study into life history characteristics of the spotcheek emperor, in particular maximum age and lengths at maturity and transition, in other locations in the CNMI SI as well as in other Indo-Pacific jurisdictions.