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ItemImagining Oneself as Another: Autism and the Problem of Other Minds(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2015-05)Autism is a mystery wrapped in a conundrum and tied together by a bow made of occlusion: basically, for all the research that goes into trying to understand the nature of autism, we understand very little about it. What is understood about autism is merely facts about behavior and based in observable differences between individuals with autism from neurotypicals (non-autistic individuals). However, the theories that arise to explained what is observed, lacking a solid basis in autism itself, result in speculation and misrepresentation of the extent of the problems, if not their very nature. This leads to a great many problems, some of which are of major philosophical importance. The goal of this thesis is to address a number of these problematic theories and conceptions about autism, both directly and by the indirect means of addressing the problems with the assumptions regarding the natures of consciousness, cognition, and language, which all back these various theories. In addressing the background assumptions inherent in the position of scientists and autism researchers alike, we can better come to understand the true nature of the processes that undergird autism by analyzing closely the points of incongruence at the intersection between these ideas of scientists and the problems themselves.
ItemPragmatism and Phenomenology(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2013-07-16)John Dewey, an American Pragmatist, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, a French Phenomenologist, belong to the beginning of an internal critique in the twentieth century Western narrative of philosophy. Upon beginning with the reality of ordinary experience, Merleau-Ponty and Dewey find what we might call an holistic aestheticism in which all the elements of experience come together to produce the totality of effect, pregnant with meaning and growth. Their return to experience provides a context for a dialogue with the Zen tradition which has always been radically and explicitly empirical.
ItemA Paradox in the Name of God(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2011-05-05)In most theistic religions, the name of God (or the thousand names of God, etc.) has both a ritual-practical as well as a doctrinal-metaphysical importance. In prayers and hymns religious practitioners use names of God with full commitment and yet when it comes to speculate theories based on religious experience, many of them say that God is beyond the reach of any language and therefore cannot be named. With this in mind, the central puzzle in this thesis arises out of the tendency among believers to regard, on the one hand, that no name can really refer to God and yet, on the other hand, God's name or names refer to God so intrinsically that name and names are as if identical.
ItemBeing "Authentic": The Ethical Implications of Heidegger's Fundamental Ontology in Being and Time(University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2013-07-16)Throughout his writings, especially in Being and Time (1927), Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) denied that there is an explicit ethics in his system and that there are ethical implications to his account of inauthenticity. Nevertheless, he maintained that, although it lacks moral content, i.e. morally evaluative rules for action, his project of fundamental ontology lays down “the existential conditions for the possibility of any morality whatsoever” (BT 332/286). This ties into the necessity and importance Heidegger saw in his analysis of Dasein (what Heidegger calls the entities that we ourselves each are), namely that it is only in Dasein that Being is disclosed, and that all inquiries and all sciences that do not start from an analysis of human existence are fundamentally groundless and empty. In this project I will argue that, given the way authenticity functions in Being and Time as a clearly preferred mode of Being-in-the-world (as Being-towards-death) to that of inauthenticity, and given Heidegger’s claims that authenticity is a factical ideal of existence--one which is rooted in Dasein itself and not imposed upon it from the outside--and that Dasein’s mineness demands authenticity: ethical implications (by which I mean that it is something “good”, “preferred” for Heidegger that Dasein dwell in this mode) can be drawn from Heidegger’s account of authenticity, despite Heidegger’s own denial of an explicit ethics in his system. I will also argue that the ethical dimension in Heidegger is rooted in Dasein’s becoming master of its moods as that which allows Dasein to respond to the revelations of anxiety by either turning away to flee its Self (inauthentic) or turning towards to own its Self (authentic), rather than in Dasein’s so-called response to the conscience’s call to authenticity as a particular stance one must take on one’s own Being, or in a sense of “Being-with” (Mitsein) as other scholars, such as Vogel, have supposed. This project will involve an analysis of the concepts of Dasein, average everydayness, fallenness, fleeing, authenticity and inauthenticity, freedom, temporality, and dread in Heidegger’s early metaphysical system; a discussion of how everyday inauthentic Dasein becomes authentic as well as the tendency of authentic Dasein to fall back into inauthenticity after having already tasted the “unshakable joy” and “equinamity” of authenticity (BT 396/345, 358/310); an explanation for why Heidegger denies an ethical component in his system; and an argument for why this denial is incorrect by showing not only that Heidegger held authenticity up as an ideal mode of Being-in-the-world, but also that by exploring his claim that “Dasein can, should, and must, through knowledge and will, become master of its modes” (BT 175/136) and how this relates to authenticity. By exploring an often criticized and highly controversial aspect of Heidegger’s early thought, I will attempt to show that if any ethical implications to Heidegger’s early account of authenticity can be drawn, they must be rooted in whether Dasein can become the master of its moods, viz. that of anxiety, rather than either in Dasein’s so-called response to the conscience’s call to authenticity, or in “Being-with”, as other scholars have supposed.