Volume 49 - 2017 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    A Second Adventive Species of Pinhole-borer on the Islands of Oahu and Hawaii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-12-26) Gillett, Conrad P.D.T. ; Ruinoff, Daniel
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    Description of Nesophrosyne melemele sp. n., an Endemic Hawaiian Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Delto- cephalinae: Opsiini) Associated with Myoporum sandwicense (Scrophulariaceae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-12-27) Denis, Michael D. ; Bennett, Gordon M.
    A new species of the endemic Hawaiian leafhopper genus, Nesophrosyne (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Opsiini), is described: Nesophrosyne melemele sp. n. Morphological and molecular characters were used to delineate this species. Nesophrosyne melemele is endemic to Kauai and strictly associated with the endemic plant species, Myoporum sandwicense (Scrophulariaceae).
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    Mark-Release-Recapture Experiments on the Effectiveness of Methyl Eugenol–Spinosad Male Annihilation Technique Against an Invading Population of Bactrocera dorsalis
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-10-16) Jang, Eric B ; Dowell, Robert V ; Manoukis, Nicholas C.
    Bactrocera dorsalis is a pest of major concern in fruit-growing areas where it is not established. Control and eradication often employs male annihila- tion technique, using methyl eugenol as an attractant (MAT-ME). We conduced a small-scale mark-release-recapture study comparing two densities of MAT-ME (“high” = 225 spots per km2; “low” = 100 spots per km2) with a control by counting males recaptured in sentinel traps baited with ME 40 m from the release point. We hypothesized that recaptures would be reduced under the two MAT treatments by equivalent amounts compared with the control, reflecting male mortality from the treatments. We found a large degree of variation in trap recaptures between replicates and treatments, and no significant difference between recaptures under the high treatment and control. Recaptures were significantly lower under the low treatment, indicating greater mortality compared with control and high. We propose the “MAT-ME saturation hypothesis” to explain this result: increasing the number of stations per square mile increases mortality of receptive males until too many stations create a high enough background of ME that the males don’t effectively follow a gradient to MAT sources. Our findings highlight that further research into the effect of increasing MAT-ME spot density on male mortality is needed.
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    Testing the Temporal Limits of Lures and Toxicants for Trapping Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Additional Weathering Studies of Solid Bactrocera and Zeugodacus Male Lures and Associated Insecticidal Strips
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-10-09) Shelly, Todd ; Kurashima, Rick ; Dean, David ; Walega, Daniel
    Detection of pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) relies largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants. Surveillance programs in Florida and California use liquid methyl eugenol (ME, attractive to males of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)) and liquid cue-lure (CL, attractive to males of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett)) mixed with the toxicant naled to bait detection traps. However, this practice requires considerable time and may subject personnel to health risks. Recent work indicates that solid male lures deployed with a separate insecticidal (DDVP) strip are as effective as the standard liquid formulations. Specifically, solid ME and CL dispensers and DDVP strips were weathered for 6 or 12 weeks under summer conditions in AZ and FL and subsequently field tested in Hawaii. Results showed that (i) solid ME dispensers weathered for 6 weeks, but not 12 weeks, were as attractive as fresh liquid ME, and (ii) solid CL dispensers and the insecticidal strips were as effective as fresh liquid formulation for at least 12 weeks. The present study expands upon these earlier findings and addresses two specific questions: Could solid ME dispensers be deployed for 8 or 10 weeks without loss of effectiveness? Could solid CL dispensers and insecticidal strips be deployed for intervals even longer than 12 weeks? Adopting the same protocol noted above, the present study indicates that effective field longevities are 10 weeks for solid ME dispensers, at least 20 weeks for solid CL dispensers, and 12 weeks for the DDVP strips. Comparisons are drawn with related studies, and implications for tephritid surveillance programs are discussed.
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    Adventive Thysanoptera Species in the Hawaiian Islands: New Records and Putative Host Associations
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-08-08) Mound, Laurence A. ; Matsunaga, Janis N. ; Bushe, Brian ; Hoddle, Mark S. ; Wells, Alice
    Fifteen adventive species of Thysanoptera, comprising eight Thripidae and seven Phlaeothripidae, are recorded for the first time from the Hawaiian Islands. Four of these are native Australian species, seven are native to south- eastern Asia, with one species known only from Costa Rica and one known from several sites around the Caribbean. New host and locality records are given for a further 15 species, and the situation is noted that some species established on the Hawaiian Islands are pests in other parts of the world but have failed to become problematic here.
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    Comparison of Sampling Intensity to Estimate Infestations of Coffee Berry Borer on Hawaii
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-08-03) Pulakkatu-thodi, Ishakh ; Gutierrez, Rosemary ; Wright, Mark G.
    Sampling coffee fruit for coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), infestation can be a labor-intensive task. We compared three berry sampling intensities (count infestation on all berries per branch, the currently recommended procedure; on five berry clusters; and on three berry clusters), to determine whether reduced sample sizes resulted in a loss of accuracy in estimating proportion of berries damaged. Results show that sampling three or five clusters of berries per tree would significantly reduce sampling effort, with no significant change in accuracy of the estimated proportion damaged by coffee berry borer.
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    Response of Little Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Colonies to Insect Growth Regulators and Hydramethylnon
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2017-07-24) Cabral, Susan K. ; Hara, Arnold H. ; Niino-DuPonte, Ruth
    The little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a highly successful, destructive invasive ant, is potentially the great- est ant species threat to the Pacific region. Once established, W. auropunctata is extremely difficult to control. This study was conducted to observe the effects of ant baits containing insect growth regulators (IGR) on W. auropunctata colonies during a five-month observation period. Baits containing both methoprene and hydramethylnon achieved 100% mortality by six weeks after treatment, possibly because of the metabolic inhibitor, hydramethylnon, rather than the IGR, metho- prene. The IGR pyriproxyfen-exposed queens were unable to produce worker brood or replacements at 20 weeks after treatment. In methoprene-treated colonies three distinct effects on queen fecundity were observed with either continued or cessa- tion of production of viable worker brood and worker replacements, or production of sexual brood exclusively. With its consistent interference with production of replacement workers and viable sexual brood as compared to methoprene, pyri- proxyfen shows potential to be an effective IGR for controlling W. auropunctata.