Digital Government: Social and Service Innovation

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    The Influence of Public Values on User Participation in e-Government: An Exploratory Study
    ( 2020-01-07) Simonofski, Anthony ; Chantillon, Maxim ; Crompvoets, Joep ; Vanderose, Benoît ; Snoeck, Monique
    In the last three decades, governments have strongly increased their use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve the service delivery towards their users. However, this development of ICT solutions must be performed in close collaboration with the users so that the e-government services are aligned with their requirement and needs. Gathering the input from the users can be performed through the use of different participation methods. The choice of the method is context-specific and public servants tend to lack proper guidance about the appropriate method(s) to use. Public values are at the core of the strategy of the organization and constitute an essential context factor to consider. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze how public values impact practitioners in their selection of development methods of e-government services. Via the analysis of four e-government projects, we examine the relevance of public values as key drivers behind user participation decisions. Furthermore, we formulate recommendations for practitioners to provide guidance in their choice depending on the values they are seeking.
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    E-participation with Social media in Science, Technology and Innovation: Brazilian States Research Support Foundations Case
    ( 2020-01-07) Andrade, Vitor ; Grützmann, André
    The use of social media has advanced in all social strata with effect on citizen participation in political discussions. In the context of Science, Technology and Innovation (ST&I) policies, bringing citizens closer together is a challenge for scientific and governmental institutions. The Brazilian States Research Support Foundations (RSF) show interest in promoting this approach to legitimize investments in science. Studies on the effects of social media on the relations between science, society and government are scarce. This research analyzed how e-participation, through social media, promotes citizen participation in the ST&I policies and actions of the RSFs. Nine organizations, including at least one Foundation from each Brazilian region, participated in this study. The main contribution of social media was the ability to intensify the interactions between government, researchers and citizens, using an informal and accessible language.
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    The Impact of Information Technology Evolution on the Forms of Knowledge in Public Sector Social Work: Examples from Canada and the UK
    ( 2020-01-07) Vogl, Thomas
    In recent years, governments have been enthusiastic about the potential of digital changes to transform the way the public sector operates. While such changes were originally found to deprioritize the forms of knowledge needed by UK child protection workers, instead favouring administrative forms of knowledge, it was not known whether this impact was similar in other liberal democracies, nor whether this simply represented a phase in the evolution of digital government. This study explored this question through desk research and by interviewing and observing social workers as they interacted with a new information system. The study’s findings suggest that while the experiences of social workers in a Canadian province replicate the previous UK experience, current digital changes in the UK that are built on the earlier foundation may enhance the knowledge of child protection workers. These findings suggest that forms of knowledge may evolve with technological change.
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    Impacts of Digitalization: Many Agendas on Different Levels
    ( 2020-01-07) Hellsten, Pasi ; Pekkola, Samuli
    Contemporary organizations investing in digitalization initiatives aim at enhancing their productivity, streamlining their processes, or quite often simply cutting their costs. However, little is known about the results and effectivity, i.e. impacts of how digitalization initiatives create value, for whom or where does this happen, and when. In this paper, we study what kind of impacts different digitalization initiatives in a mid-size city create and for who. We show that the impacts vary for different stakeholders and according to a perspective. Potential impacts diverge for city employees, decision-makers, citizens, organizational activities, and public sector in general. Our findings show that potential impacts are multifaceted and numerous. This has implications to the assessment of the success and benefits of the digitalization initiatives; they vary according to the stakeholders and their expectations. The distinction between the experiment and the standardized service is vital to keep in mind.
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    Open Data Standards: Vertical Industry Standards to Unlock Digital Ecosystems
    ( 2020-01-07) Rudmark, Daniel
    Standards are considered an essential means to facilitate value creation from open data. Despite this importance, we find that empirical studies of open data standards have not been conducted in proportion to its importance. In particular, the literature has insofar been silent about why specific standards are chosen and how these standards are implemented. To this end, we report from an action research project with the Swedish public transport industry, where open data standards were both chosen and implemented. Consistent with the literature, we find standards were selected based on expected increased attractivity for re-users. Also, and more surprisingly, we found that open data standards were chosen as a means to harness resources in adjacent digital ecosystems. Finally, our findings convey that implementing open data standards may hamper the possibility to publish datasets, with its original qualities.
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    Problem Conceptualization as a Foundation of Data Analytics in Local Governments: Lessons from the City of Syracuse, New York
    ( 2020-01-07) Cronemberger, Felippe ; Gil-Garcia, J.
    The use data and data analytics (DA) has been attracting the attention of academics and practitioners in the public sector and is sometimes seen as a potential strategy for process and service innovation. While research on the many possible uses of data have clearly increased - open data, big data, data analytics- empirical research on the socio-technical process that local governments followed when using data analytics to improve services and policies is still scarce. Based on existing literature about data analytics in the public sector and the data lifecycle concept, this paper examines how data analytics is actually used in a local government and what are the main steps in this process. It analyzes the experience of a mid-size American city that had a dedicated task force to data analytics use to support decision making at the local level – Syracuse, New York. Findings suggest that data analytics as a process not only involves data analysis and representations (such as visualizations), but also data collection and cleaning. Further, it seems clear that the conceptualization of the problem is a critical step in producing meaningful data analytics, but also in thinking about innovations even when data is not readily available.
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    Mapping the Evolving Intellectual Structure of Digital Innovation Research on the Public Sector: A Document Co-citation Analysis
    ( 2020-01-07) Hedlund, Hugo
    This paper uses document co-citation analysis (DCA) to explore the underlying and evolving structure of research on digital innovation (DI) in the public sector. As such, the DCA examines (1) what streams of scientific literature have been used in scholarly practices of citation in the study of innovation in the domain of e-government; (2) which are the central documents in the identified research streams and; (3) whether the emerging academic contributions around DI has had an impact on this field of research. Through the DCA of 1082 peer-reviewed papers three clusters of citation are identified, mapped, and categorized as: E-government diffusion and effects; Technology acceptance and adoption; and Digital innovation and infrastructures. The first two clusters are found to be tightly coupled while the last is found to currently be infrequently connected to either clusters. Implications for research and practice are presented and discussed
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Digital Government: Social and Service Innovation
    ( 2020-01-07) Melin, Ulf ; Misuraca, Gianluca ; Liu, Shuhua