Smith, Clifford W.

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Dr. Clifford W. Smith, Emeritus
Department of Botany
1965 PhD. Botany


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 10 of 10
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    Proceedings of workshop on biological control of native ecosystems in Hawai’i
    (Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 2002-09) Smith, Clifford W. ; Denslow, Julie ; Hight, Stephen
    The importation of alien insects and pathogens to control invasive alien weeds raises justifiable concern among land managers and conservationists. For the Hawaiian archipelago the dangers are particularly acute. Hawai'i has many endemic species, a substantial percentage of which are at risk of extinction. Over 900 nonindigenous plant species have become naturalized in Hawai'i, more than 90 of which constitute substantial problems for conservation because they compete with native species or so alter ecosystem processes that whole communities are changed). There are good reasons for caution in the use of alien insects and pathogens as control agents for invasive weeds. Nevertheless biological control offers one of the most cost-effective and enduring mechanisms for the control of persistent weeds that have become widely invasive in natural habitats. Chemical and mechanical approaches to the control of weed populations require perpetual maintenance, may inflict unwanted side effects on nontarget species and communities and are of limited use in large diverse ecosystems. Extensive infestations in poorly accessible terrain require considerable long-term investment in personnel and resources, expenditures that may be difficult to justify when short-term economic returns are not apparent. Biological control offers the possibility for control (rarely eradication) of invasive weeds over extensive acreage and inaccessible terrain in perpetuity Clearly the challenge to the community of scientists and managers seeking to use biological control agents in Hawaii is to make the most efficient use of limited space, personnel, and financial resources in bringing the safest yet most effective insect and pathogen agents on line. The most productive research strategies for meeting that goal was the topic of the 2000 Conservation Forum of the Hawai'i Secretariat for Conservation Biology: Biological Control of Invasive Plants in Native Hawaiian Ecosystems.
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    Proposal to study feral pigs in Kipahulu Valley, Haleakala National Park
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1977-09) Smith, Clifford W. ; Diong, Cheong H.
    This proposal is written in response to Haleakala National Park Project Number HALE-N-6 (Kipahulu Pig Study). As outlined in their Project Statement the research is to provide information in the following areas: 1. Population grouping, distribution and racial types. 2. Specific points of access into Kipahulu Valley by outside populations of pigs. 3. The role of pigs in the introduction and spread of exotic plants into Kipahulu Valley. 4. The role of pigs in the direct destruction of native plants. 5. The probable long range effect on Kipahulu Valley if no control measures are taken. 6. If control measures are recommended, then a study is to be made of the cost, effectiveness and potential damage to the native habitat of: a. hunting, b. trapping, c. fencing, d. sterilants, e. any other feasible methods.
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    Proposed native ecosystem restoration program for Halape, Keauhou, and Apua Point: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1980-02) Smith, Clifford W.
    This resource management report is a prescription for the ecosystem restoration program of the coastal lowland of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park between Apua Point and Halape. The prescription emphasizes a vegetation community approach rather than the current introduction of individual species in widely scattered localities. Seventy-two species are discussed in the report. Eight species are recommended for introduction by planting and ten by broadcast seeding. Three species, whose classification is confused, are recommended for planting only after their taxonomy is resolved and the species appropriate for the area concerned is identified. Fifteen species should be eradicated. The remaining 36 species require no management action. It is recommended that the planting areas be monitored before and after planting.
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    Kipahulu Valley research plan
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1978-10) Smith, Clifford W.
    This proposal of research alternatives is written in response to the Haleakala National Park Natural Resources Project Statement, HALE-N-8. The purpose of the project is to “develop acceptable methods for studying Kipahulu Valley which take into consideration the valley" fragile nature, and secondly, to determine changes that may have occurred since the 1967 discoveries. "This report involves defining" objectives and guidelines which will permit further research to be conducted in Kipahulu Valley by Service—sponsored researchers [in a manner] that will safeguard the endemic flora and fauna from all undesirable outside influences." NPS management of Kipahulu Valley, as discussed in the Park's Draft Statement for Management, indicates that this area is to be managed as a permanent scientific research reserve of international significance and that it is to be isolated and carefully restricted to insure the perpetuation of its natural ecological state. However, because of past and present human activity in the Hawaiian Islands, various negative influences are becoming evident in the valley. The Park's Resource Managers need hard baseline information on the area's ecosystems and some form of resource assessment procedure so that timely actions can be taken to control and reduce degradation of the resources. This information would be most suitably provided by scientists working closely with Park Management. In carrying out this type of field research there is potential for causing additional impacts upon the fragile resources. To evaluate the relationship between scientific information to be gathered and environmental impacts which may result from research activities, four alternative approaches are presented for consideration. These are supplemented by draft guide lines for authorizing entry into Kipahulu Valley and other sensitive are as within Haleakala National Park.
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    Vegetation map and resource management recommendations for Kipahulu Valley (below 700 metres), Haleakala National Park
    (Cooperative National Park Resouces Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1985-03) Smith, Clifford W. ; Williams, Julia E. ; Asherman, Karen E.
    A vegetation map (Scale 1:6,000) of Kipahulu Valley below 700m is presented. The vegetation has two principal components, pastureland and alien secondary forest. The vegetation in the study area has been disturbed for several centuries but the last two centuries have been the most devastating on the native ecosystems. Consequently, the vegetation is extremely fragmented and has been classified into 105 structural-floristic communities, an extremely high number for such a small area. Sizeable areas are essentially monotypic stands of bamboo or guava yet a significant number of native species persist in many of these areas. The significance of this pool of alien species on the native ecosystems higher up the valley is discussed. Several resource management recommendations are made with the objective of halting the further spread of aliens into the valley. Zones where resource managers can make significant headway in restoring or protecting various native species or ecosystems are presented. However, all resource management activity is dependent on their being an adequate staff to carry out the necessary activities for extended periods of time; a situation which does not currently exist. This report recommends that two permanent and five seasonal resource managers are employed in Kipahulu Valley. The most critical resource management action is the eradication of feral pigs from the valley ecosystem. Except for a few cosmetic actions, all other management activities are dependent on the removal of this highly disruptive influence. Some future research is recommended particularly on the autecology of Hilo grass and strawberry guava.
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    Vascular plants of Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park, Hawai'i
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1986-02) Smith, Clifford W. ; Stemmermann, Lani ; Higashino, Paul K. ; Funk, Evangeline
    Three ferns and 123 flowering plants are recorded from Pu'uhonua o Honaunau National Park. Ninety two (74%) are alien (introduced after 1778). Six species - common sandbur, fountaingrass, lantana, nutgrass, puncture vine, and sourgrass - have been declared noxious by the State of Hawaii. The following nine species could disrupt archaeological sites if left unchecked: Christmasberry, coral berry, kiawe, klu, koa haole, monkeypod, noni, 'opiuma and shrubby fleabane. Six grasses (buffelgrass, Californiagrass, fountaingrass, Guineagrass, Natal redtop and pili) provide a fine fuel that carries hot fires very rapidly when dry. Some management recommendations are made for alien plant control, fire control, and research on the impact of fire on archaeological resources.
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    Haleakala National Park resources basic inventory, 1975: narrative report
    (Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany, 1975) Berger, Andrew J. ; Beardsley, John ; Burkhart, Robert ; Higashino, Paul ; Hoe, William J. ; Smith, Clifford W. ; Smith, H Eddie
    Three areas, the northwestern outer slope between 7,000 and 10,000 feet, the Ko'olau Gap between 5,500 and 6,500 feet and the Kau-po Gap Lau'ulu trail, were studied. Twenty sites were sampled within these areas and observations made on three other areas. Two sites, the Makawao Forest Reserve at 5,900 feet and the Ko'olau Gap ('Aina-hou) at 5,560 feet, just outside the northern boundary of the Park, were also visited. Specimens of flowering plants, ferns, mosses, liverworts, lichens and insects were collected. Census observations were made on the birds. Determinations on all the flowering plants, ferns and birds have been completed. The determination of many species from the other groups will not be complete until authorities elsewhere have had an opportunity to study them. Some recommendations are included for future studies. Several potential management problems are also submitted; they are on the control of goats, pigs and the blackberry.
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    Role of Alien and Native Birds in the Dissemination of Firetree (Myricafaya Ait.-Myriacaceae) and Associated Plants in Hawaii
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1985-10) LaRosa, Anne M. ; Smith, Clifford W. ; Gardner, Donald E.
    The food habits of several forest birds and their potential role in the dispersal of firetree (Myrica faya) were studied in two areas of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Observations were made during peak firetree fruiting (October-November 1983) in areas where 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and firetree are codominant. Both native and introduced birds foraged in firetree and 'ohi' a, but introduced birds were more common in firetree. Ofthe six bird species observed, 'oma'o (Phaeornis obscurus) and house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) were the principal dispersal agents in the areas studied, while the common 'amakihi (Hemignathus virens) was secondarily important. Japanese white-eyes (Zosterops japonicus), though feeding on the fruit, rarely ingested the seed. 'Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Northern American cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were not observed eating firetree fruit. Germination rates and successes of several native and alien species are generally unaffected by passage through the digestive tracts of captive Japanese white-eyes and common mynas (Acridotheres tristis).
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    Hawaii's Alectorioid Lichens
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1984-07) Smith, Clifford W.
    Four species of alectorioid lichens are reported from Hawaii. Bryoria smithii (= Alectoria sandwicensis) is the most common. Two species, B. furcellata and Pseudephebe minuscula, are new records to the islands. The presence of B. lanestris is confirmed. Alectoria altaica and A. jubata are not present as previously reported. All species are confined to elevations above 2000 m on Maui and Hawaii. Their ecologies are discussed and a key to their identification is provided.
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    A Morphometric Analysis and Taxonomic Appraisal of the Hawaiian Silversword Argyroxiphium sandwicense DC. (Asteraceae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1983-07) Meyrat, Alain ; Carr, Gerald D. ; Smith, Clifford W.
    Morphometric techniques were used to examine the pattern of variation of45 characters between the Haleakala and Mauna Kea populations of Argyro xiphium sandwicense. Qualitative features were also evaluated. A framework for a priori comparisons between the two populations of A. sandwicense was provided by including two additional species in the study, that is, A . kauense and .A. virescens var. paludosa. The F tests of one-way analysis of variance indicate that the means of each of 18 characters differ significantly (P ~ 0.05) between the two populations of A. sandwicense. Based on the presence of quantitative differentiation and geographical isolation and the near absence of qualitative differentiation between the two populations, it is proposed to recognize them as two different subspecies: A. sandwicense ssp. macrocephalum (Haleakala) and A. sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Mauna Kea). The stud y also indicates that A . virescens var. paludosa, A . kauense, and A . sandwicense are distinct from one another in several quantitative and qualitative characters. Taxonomically useful quantitative characters include inflorescence proportions, leaf proportions, number of ray florets per capitulum, and capitulum diameter. The subspecies of A . sandwicense can be recognized on the basis of inflorescence proportions. However, to separate all four taxa, based on quantitative characters, a combination of at least three of the foregoing features appear to be needed . A taxonomic key and descriptions for common taxa ofArgyro xiphium of the island of Hawai'i and of East Maui are presented.