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ItemReporting Workplace Discrimination: An Exploratory Analysis of Bystander Behavior( 2023)Reporting workplace discrimination has garnered renewed attention in public administration scholarship. Missing, however, from the literature is bystander reporting, a relatively new and understudied mode of reporting. Using a sub-sample of respondents (i.e., bystanders) who witnessed others encountering workplace discrimination—specifically race- (n = 886) and/or sex-based discrimination (n = 1,152)—this study finds that less than one fifth (18.7% and 16.6% respectively) of all bystanders reported the alleged offense. However, this study suggests that personal characteristics such as age, race or ethnicity, and veteran status, as well as occupational variables such as supervisory status and tenure duration, significantly impacted bystander reporting after witnessing race-based discrimination. Likewise, personal characteristics such as age, as well as occupational variables such as grade level, supervisory status, and tenure duration, also significantly impacted bystander reporting after witnessing sex-based discrimination. These findings are important because a different mode of reporting may increase agency accountability for acts of workplace discrimination or retaliation.
ItemGender Differences: Male Officers’ Perception Toward Women’s Occupational Barriers in Federal Law Enforcement( 2019)Gender differences in public administration are gendered norms and practices that make clear distinctions between agentic (i.e., masculine) and communal (i.e., feminine) attributes in the workplace. Examples include both organizational and occupational elements such as employee representation, organizational culture, social rules and structure, gender bias and stereotypes, gender roles, and physical and mental differences. Occupational barriers are impediments that negatively impact women’s recruitment, retention, and promotion in the workplace.
ItemStructural Racism in the Federal Workplace: An Intersectional Approach to Examining Race-Based Discrimination in Law Enforcement( 2023)Law enforcement has historically been an institution resistant to both women and racial minorities, evident by decades of research on workplace discrimination in local policing. Missing, however, from this research are the workplace experiences of minority officers in federal policing, a growing domain in law enforcement scholarship. This article examines perceived encounters of race-based discrimination and its subsequent outcomes to reporting behavior between White and minority officers. Findings suggest that all minority race or ethnic subgroups except one (e.g., Black/African American, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, multi-racial, and Hispanic/Latino officers respectively) were more likely to perceive experiencing race-based discrimination in comparison to White officers, although only three of the minority subgroups (e.g., Black/African American, multiracial, and Hispanic/Latino officers, respectively) were more likely to report the unlawful conduct. Likewise, comparisons between officers of color found that Black/African American women were more likely to perceive experiencing race-based discrimination in comparison to men of color.
ItemWomen and Work-Life Balance in Federal Law Enforcement( 2019)Work-life balance is the practice of reducing work-family conflict by providing workplace flexibilities to help employees balance the needs of their families and the responsibilities of their jobs, resulting in maximized organizational performance. Key workplace flexibilities include work-life programs and family-friendly policies such as flexible work schedules, telework, worksite health and wellness, employee assistance programs, and dependent care.