Volume 33, No. 2

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
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    Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in other Venues 2020-2021
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Harris, Shenika ; Li, Yanjie ; Balmaceda M., David ; Rivera, José Luis Garrido ; Ghaedi, Hadis
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    Research Investigating Lexical Coverage and Lexical Profiling: What We Know, What We Don’t Know, and What Needs to be Examined
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Webb, Stuart
    Studies of lexical coverage are valuable because they reveal the importance of vocabulary knowledge to comprehension. Lexical profiling research is also extremely useful because it indicates the vocabulary knowledge necessary to understand different text types such as novels, newspapers, academic lectures, television programs, and movies. Moreover, lexical profiling research provides teachers and learners with concrete vocabulary learning targets that students can seek to achieve and evaluate their knowledge against. However, there are only three studies that have precisely investigated the effects of lexical coverage on reading comprehension (Hu & Nation, 2000; Laufer, 1989; Schmitt et al., 2011), two that have directly investigated its effects on listening comprehension (Bonk, 2000; Van Zeeland & Schmitt, 2013), and one that has done this for viewing comprehension (Durbahn et al., 2020). With few studies and few variables that may affect comprehension examined, discussions of the generalizability of lexical coverage findings are likely overstated. The aim of this article is to clarify earlier research findings and highlight areas where further research is needed.
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    Effective Treatment of Vocabulary when Teaching L2 Reading: The Example of Yoko Tawada’s Wo Europa anfängt
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Fichtner, Friederike ; Barcroft, Joe
    Second language (L2) learners comprehend more when they are prepared for novel vocabulary that they encounter in a text. Input-based incremental (IBI) vocabulary instruction (Barcroft, 2012) provides L2 instructors and learners with a means of achieving this goal by (a) presenting optimal input to learners at the right time during a reading-focused lesson and (b) promoting the gradual development of different aspects of word knowledge over time. The approach draws on theoretical advances and research findings related to lexical input processing, including the benefits of acoustically varied input and opportunities for target word retrieval. This paper explains the IBI approach and demonstrates how it can be applied when teaching authentic texts, using as an example L2 German and Wo Europa anfängt (1991) by Yoko Tawada, a narrative that addresses themes such as transnationalism, migration, borders, and cultural identity.
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    Response to Yang et al. (2021): Clarifying the Input Hypothesis
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Taylor, Charlie
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    Lexical Mastery Thresholds and Lexical Units: A Reply to Laufer
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) McLean, Stuart ; Stoeckel, Tim
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    Lexical Thresholds and Alleged Threats to Validity: A Storm in a Teacup?
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Laufer, Batia
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    Constructing Diagnostic Reading Assessment Instruments for Low-level Chinese as Second Language Learners
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Yang, Shuyi
    The present study investigated the applicability of word reading, word segmentation, and text reading as diagnostic tools to assess comprehension, detect struggling readers, and inform instruction for low-level Chinese as second language (L2) learners (n = 70). The results showed that the three instruments measured different dimensions of word recognition and predicted text comprehension. Text reading was the most robust indicator of comprehension and the most sensitive screener for weak readers. The diagnostic instruments provided interpretable feedback, located problems at specific areas, and evaluated instructional material difficulty level. The findings offer empirical support for the use of text reading for diagnostic purposes in Chinese low-level L2 reading instruction and suggest the importance of helping students develop word recognition skills.
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    The Effects of Combining Timed Reading, Repeated Oral Reading, and Extensive Reading
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Milliner, Brett
    This quasi-experimental study traces a 12-week reading fluency training program for elementary-level English as a foreign language (EFL) learners at a Japanese university (N = 56). More specifically, this study examined whether a teaching intervention combining (a) extensive reading and practicing, (b) timed reading, and (c) repeated oral reading during class time promoted reading fluency. At the end of the intervention, silent reading rates while maintaining a ≥ 75 % comprehension threshold improved by 46 standard words per minute. Further, the learners who did more extensive reading (a) achieved greater reading rate gains and (b) significantly improved listening and reading scores in the TOEIC® test. This study’s implications include the benefit of combining these measures for nurturing EFL learners’ reading rates, the utility of oral re-reading in the classroom, and the overall contribution extensive reading has upon reading and listening skills.
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    Exploring Task-completion Processes in L2 Reading Assessments: Multiple-choice vs. Short-answer Questions
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Liao, Ray J. T.
    This study was to compare the processes that second language learners implemented when completing reading tasks in a multiple-choice question format (MCQ) with those in a short-answer question format (SAQ). Sixteen nonnative English-speaking students from a large Midwestern college in the United States were invited to complete MCQ and SAQ English reading tasks and then to engage in retrospective verbal reporting and semi-structured interviews. Results showed that when processing information in the source texts, students constructed text and situation models to (a) obtain a general understanding of the texts and (b) deepen their textual understanding. As students answered the comprehension questions, their question-answering processes were informed by the test format itself. Moreover, students employed different styles of interactive processing depending on whether they were completing MCQ or SAQ tasks. The implications of the study encourage test developers and teachers to implement a variety of test formats when possible.
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    Visuospatial Working Memory and the Hybrid Reading Fluency Measure
    (University of Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center, 2021-10-15) Bazan, Bartolo
    In this study, I sought to investigate whether visuospatial working memory (VWM) explains individual differences in reading fluency growth. One hundred and thirty Japanese junior and senior high school students were administered the Mr. Peanut and reversed Corsi tasks, respectively as measures of VWM, followed by three waves of reading fluency assessment. To assess reading fluency, a novel reading fluency measure was constructed by combining the participants’ comprehension scores with their reading speeds into a single measure using many-facet Rasch measurement. Latent growth curve analyses revealed that VWM significantly predicted variation in the individual growth trajectories at the initial status but did not significantly predict rate of change. Results of Rasch analyses indicated that the novel reading comprehension-speed measure assessed a unidimensional construct, thus suggesting that the construction of this measure is both a practical and valid approach to estimating reading fluency as well as reading passage difficulty.