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ItemOn the Ordering of Un/nun-marked Topics and Man-marked Foci in Korean( 2020)The nominal particles un/nun and man are both categorized as semantic particles (pocosa) in Korean. Several studies have analyzed the semantic and syntactic properties of un/nun and man in isolation. However, the relations between un/nun and man have not yet been fully investigated. The present paper seeks to explore how un/nun and man interact in a particular way, focusing on their ordering relations. When an un/nun-marked NP precedes a man-marked NP, the sentence is always perceived as well-formed. On the other hand, when a man-marked NP precedes an un/nun-marked NP, the sentence is perceived as unnatural and uninterpretable. The particle un/nun marks a noun phrase as a contrastive topic or a noncontrastive topic, whereas man marks a noun phrase as a contrastive focus. When an un/nun-marked topic and a man-marked focus occur together in the same sentence, their syntactic distribution is restricted. While an un/nun-marked contrastive topic can precede a man-marked contrastive focus, a man-marked contrastive focus cannot precede an un/nun-marked contrastive topic due to the information-structural restriction which prohibits a contrastive focus to contain a contrastive topic in its domain of contrast. However, a man-marked contrastive focus can precede an un/nun-marked topic if interpreted noncontrastively in the subject position.
ItemThe Effects of Awareness-Raising with a Strong Component of Noticing to Listener Responses in Japanese( 2020)The sociocultural aspect in Japanese conversation has shown that Japanese speakers put emphasis on mutual coordination and social bonds. One such conversational practice is the use of Reactive Tokens (RT) termed by Clancy et al. (1996) where listeners use small bits of vocal behavior to exhibit understanding without disrupting the speaker. Japanese speakers make use of RTs to establish intersubjectivity, and such practices shape the sociocultural aspect of omoiyari, also known as consideration for others. Native speakers of English also use RTs, albeit with different underlying expectations. As a result, English speakers learning Japanese tend to misplace their use of RTs when speaking Japanese. Consequently, this can appear inattentive rather than displaying mutual alignment to their conversation partner. This study investigates whether pragmatic-focused explicit instructions with a significant component of noticing can support learners’ increase in target like production of RTs and its appropriate placement. This study contributes to the pedagogical implication for mediating cross cultural communication as well as cultural pragmatic competency for both educators and learners. This quasi-experimental study employs a pre and post-test, alongside 4 different interventions as a way to raise awareness to head nods, and RTs during regular class hours.