Volume 53 - 2021: Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Effects of Ultraviolet Light and Pheromone Release Rate in Trapping Coconut Rhinoceros Beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), on Guam
    (Hawaii Entomological Society, 2021-12-31) Siderhurst, Matthew S ; Moore, Aubrey ; Quitugua, Roland ; Chang, Eric B
    Coconut rhinoceros beetle (CRB), Oryctes rhinoceros L., is a serious pest of coconut and oil palms throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific. CRB was found on Guam in 2007 and, despite suppression efforts, has subsequently spread across the island. The CRB population on Guam is genetically different from other populations in Asia and the Pacific, and is considered a new invasive biotype (termed CRB-G). CRB-G is apparently resistant to Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus, the preferred biocontrol agent for this pest. CRB populations are typically controlled with a combination of biocontrol, pheromone traps, and breeding site removal. A field trial was performed at six locations on Guam to test potential improvements to standard CRB pheromone trapping with oryctalure (ethyl 4-methyloctanoate). Two modifications were tested, 1) addition of ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs), and 2) reduction of pheromone release rate. Addition of UV LED light sources to pheromone traps significantly increased trap catch by 2.85 times. Reduction in oryctalure release rate by up to an order of magnitude did not significantly change CRB capture rate. Further, when linear regression analyses of CRB trap capture rate as a function of pheromone release rate were conducted for traps with and without UV LEDs separately, only a very weak relationship between trap capture and oryctalure release rate was observed and only when a UV LED was present. Results suggest that addition of UV LED light sources to pheromone traps could improve detection trapping of CRB and that reduction of pheromone release rate could extend service life of lures without changing capture rate.
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    First Confirmed Record of Leaf Mining in the Fruitworm Moths (Carposinidae): A New Species Feeding on an Endemic Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2021-07-27) Doornweerd, Camiel ; Austin, Kyhl A. ; Rubinoff, Daniel
    We discovered an unknown insect mining the leaves of Clermontia fauriei (Campanulaceae) in the Alakai Swamp, Kauai. Although the leaf mines superficially resembled those of the Hawaiian endemic genus Philodoria (Gracillariidae), or possibly Euperissus (Cosmopterigidae), rearing revealed an undescribed species of Carposina (Carposinidae). We describe it here as Carposina hahaiella sp. n., and include detailed information on the morphology, leaf mines, cytochrome c oxidase I sequences, and a parasitoid of the new species. Carposina hahaiella represents the first confirmed record of leaf mining in the fruitworm moth family, adding to a remarkable variety of larval habits in Carposinidae.
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    Do Females of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Gain an Indirect Benefit by Mating with Methyl Eugenol–Fed Males? Assessing the Possibility that Sons of Methyl Eugenol–Fed Fathers Show Enhanced Lure Responsiveness and Mating Success
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2021-07-27) Shelly, Todd E
    Males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), are strongly attracted to, and feed voraciously on, methyl eugenol, a naturally occurring compound found in many plants. This attraction has long served as the basis for detection and eradication strategies against this agricultural pest. Recent studies have examined the biological basis of this attraction and demonstrated that derivatives of methyl eugenol are incorporated into the male sex pheromone and that methyl eugenol–fed males produce a more attractive pheromone and enjoy higher mating success than methyl eugenol-deprived males. What remains unclear is what (if anything) females gain by mating preferentially with methyl eugenol–fed males. Data from the congeneric Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt), males of which are attracted to raspberry ketone/cue-lure, show that males sired by cue-lure–fed males are better able to locate this lure than males sired by non-cue-lure–fed males. The present study tested this notion with B. dorsalis in a series of field cage tests as well as a mark-release-recapture experiment. In none of the tests conducted was a difference detected in lure response between males fathered by methyl eugenol-fed versus methyl eugenol-deprived males. Moreover, no difference in mating success was observed between males sired by lure-fed or unfed males. Mate choice by B. dorsalis females is discussed in light of these results.