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    “Who cares about fireworks?” – A Study on Digital Coaching, Gamification and Exercise Motivation
    ( 2020-01-07) Helmefalk, Miralem ; Marcusson, Leif ; Sell, Anna
    Digital coaching systems offer users support in their physical training through insights and advice based on the individual’s activity data. Often these systems utilize gamification mechanisms to motivate users. In this study we conduct interviews with digital coaching users to understand how digital coaching systems are used to motivate physical activity, what kind of a role gamification plays, and how digital coaching systems should be developed further to better motivate users. We find that data itself is more motivating than gamification mechanisms, that players use data to play their own, internal games; and that data is also used for social purposes. We find that the benefits from digital coaches today are limited and mainly related to accurate exercise tracking and visualization of user data. Gamified elements are used on a low level and not perceived as value-adding by the users; deeper understanding of motivation theory and promoting intrinsic motivation is needed.
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    The Role of Gamification in Health Behavior Change: A Review of Theory-driven Studies
    ( 2020-01-07) Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel ; Warsinsky, Simon ; Thiebes, Scott ; Sunyaev, Ali
    Gamification is increasingly being recognized as a tool to support a change in individuals’ health behaviors. However, how and under which circumstances gamification is able to support health behavior change is still largely unexplored. This study follows the call for more theory-driven research on gamification by investigating the role of gamification in health behavior change theories (HBCTs). In order to do so, we conducted a systematic review of extant literature and identified 25 studies that explore the role of gamification in the process of health behavior change to some extent. We found large discrepancies in how the authors of these studies conceptualized the role of gamification in their theory-driven health interventions. To further strengthen theory-driven research on gamification in health and well-being, we additionally propose concrete research questions. These may guide future researchers to identify valuable avenues for further explaining and predicting the influences of gamification on health behavior change.
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    Fine-Dusty: Gamification of Particulate Matter Risk Communication
    ( 2020-01-07) Choi, Ju Yeon ; Jin, Helane ; Hwang, Soojin ; Kwon, Sooyeon ; Kang, Youna Ah
    With the increasing severity of particulate matter problems, the current media have begun to deal with this issue. Yet awareness of the problem is still very low among many people. In this study, we applied gamification methods to risk information communication to overcome the limitations of information from the previous particulate matter media. Via a design science research methodology and design process of the gamification, user needs regarding risk communication were defined and gamification was identified as a promising design alternative. Attributes of information design extracted from user research were implemented to guide the game elements. Effectiveness of the gamified application was evaluated through presurvey and postsurvey using remote unmoderated user testing. Based on self-determination theory, the relationship between game elements and required information design aspects, the effect of game elements on user motivation was evaluated. As a result, the effect of using the particulate matter game application was verified to bring affordance and internal and external motivation to users. In the case of internal motivation, autonomy was affected but competence and relatedness were not. Furthermore, the gamification application influenced users’ reduction action, knowledge of the problem, and empowerment regarding particulate matter after using the prototype.
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    Using the "Daily Missions" Gamification Strategy To Promote Incremental Progress on Programming Assignments
    ( 2020-01-07) Edwards, Stephen ; Goldman, Andrew
    Automatic assessment tools are increasingly utilized in undergraduate programming courses to evaluate software solutions, streamlining the grading process for both students and professors. In spite of their benefits of speed and convenience, such online systems for providing instant feedback have the tendency to draw attention to performance-based outcomes while failing to reliably recognize the effort and hard work a student puts into a solution. For the many struggling students who are new to programming, this type of objective feedback can be discouraging and may decrease their motivation to stay engaged towards success. To address this issue, this paper explores strategies for more effectively recognizing student progress on programming assignments and identifying small tasks for students to complete that will steer them in the right direction. Further, this paper presents the design of a "Daily Missions" gamification strategy that was added to an automated program grading system. A pilot study shows feasibility of the approach and suitability of the design, indicating a statistically significant increase in the rate of completing tasks assigned as daily missions, and that students believe daily missions reinforce good practices while giving them better ideas on how to improve their work. An evaluation of experiences from using the strategy in the classroom is presented, along with student perceptions from using the system.
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    Does Tailoring Gamified Educational Systems Matter? The Impact on Students' Flow Experience
    ( 2020-01-07) Oliveira, Wilk ; Toda, Armando ; Toledo, Paula ; Shi, Lei ; Vassileva, Julita ; Bittencourt, Ig Ibert ; Isotani, Seiji
    Recent research has shown that using gamification can prone to impact negatively on the motivation of students in educational systems. One of the reasons is that people are motivated or demotivated by different gamification elements according to their "gamer type". Thus, one of the main challenges in this field is to tailor gamified educational systems based on the students' "gamer type" and investigate if this kind of system presents better results than the counter-tailored gamified educational systems. This paper aims to investigate the effects of a tailored gamified educational system based on gamer type in terms of students' flow experience. We conducted an experiment with 121 Brazilian elementary school students comparing a tailored version against a counter-tailored version of a gamified educational system in terms of students' flow experience. The main results indicate that there is no significant difference in terms of students' flow experience, surprising and contradicting recent important studies in this field.
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    Using Gamification to Support Users’ Adoption of Contextual Achievement Goals
    ( 2020-01-07) Tang, Jian ; Jia, Yilin ; Zhang, Ping
    Gamification is a promising approach for motivating and engaging users in nongame tasks. However, theoretical support on why and how gamification enhances users’ motivation or behavior is limited. Considering the concepts of goal orientation and goal structure suggested by achievement goal theory, we prescribe gamification design as purposely creating goal structures to support users’ goal adoption and achievement behaviors. This conceptual work addresses the question: what types of achievement goals can be associated with gamification design? Particularly, how can the use of gamification design help construct goal structures to support users’ goal adoption? Adapting achievement goal theory, we identify three sets of achievement goals, namely, cognitive competence, social competence, and social purpose, and develop six propositions on gamification design. Each proposition is illustrated with empirical examples from the literature. This research contributes to the theoretical advancement of gamification design and provides additional insights into the motivational design of information systems.
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    Loot Box Purchase Decisions in Digital Business Models: The Role of Certainty and Loss Experience
    ( 2020-01-07) Roethke, Konstantin ; Adam, Martin ; Benlian, Alexander
    Game providers are increasingly employing and selling loot boxes, which can be considered virtual goods that consist of further virtual goods on a randomized basis. As such, game providers can foster profitability without impeding user experience. Drawing on prospect theory, we investigate ideas for the design of loot box menus to optimize revenue generation and user well-being. By conducting a contest-based online experiment with 159 participants, our analyses reveal that including certain (vs. uncertain) content in loot boxes can influence users’ purchase behaviors and thus increase revenues. Moreover, this effect increases when participants previously experienced a loss. Thus, our findings demonstrate that game providers can profit from offering certain content in loot boxes.
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    Flow in VR: A Study on the Relationships Between Preconditions, Experience and Continued Use
    ( 2020-01-07) Hassan, Lobna ; Jylhä, Henrietta ; Sjöblom, Max ; Hamari, Juho
    Flow is characterized as an autotelic experience where action and awareness merge, there is high concentration on task and little attention is paid to time or self. It is believed that VR has a powerful affordance for inducing the flow state, as VR is, at least anecdotally, a technology that transports users to immersive realities, which can facilitate flow. However, VR imposes usability challenges that may inhibit flow. This research investigates flow in VR and its characteristics, determinants and outcomes through a survey (n = 681) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results indicate that flow in VR is positively association with intentions to continue VR use and longer VR sessions.
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    Introduction to the Minitrack on Gamification
    ( 2020-01-07) Hamari, Juho ; Thibault, Mattia ; Hassan, Lobna