Pacific Science Volume 56, Number 1, 2002

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Abstracts of Papers. Twenty-sixth Annual Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium, 11-12 April 2001
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2002-01)
    The Albert L. Tester Memorial Symposium is held in honor of Professor Albert Tester, who, at the time of his death in 1974, was senior professor of zoology at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. The faculty and students of the Department of Zoology proposed an annual symposium of student research papers as a means of honoring, in a continuing and active way, Dr. Tester's lively encouragement of student research in a broad range of fields within marine biology. Papers reporting original research on any aspect of science are solicited from students at the university and these papers are presented at the symposium, which takes place during the spring semester. Income from contributions to the Albert L. Tester Memorial Fund of the University of Hawai'i Foundation is used to provide prizes for the two best papers, judged on quality, originality, and importance of research reported, as well as the quality of the public presentation. The WaikIkI Aquarium presents the Mike Weekley Award, based on the same criteria. Judges include Department of Zoology faculty members and the previous year's student award winners. In addition, a distinguished scholar from another university or research institution is invited to participate in the symposium as a judge and to present the major symposium address. This year the guest participant was Steve Jones, University College, London.
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    The Ka'ena Highstand of O'ahu, Hawai'i: Further Evidence of Antarctic Ice Collapse during the Middle Pleistocene
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2002-01) Hearty, Paul J.
    Marine isotope stage (MIS) 11 may well represent one of the most significant interglacial highstand events of the past million years. Ocean volume changes charted from coastal exposures imply partial or complete melting of some of the world's major ice caps during a middle Pleistocene interglacial. The coastal geology of both Bermuda and the Bahamas yields evidence of an MIS 11 highstand 20 m higher than present. Further support for this catastrophic episode in sea-level history is revealed in subtidal and intertidal deposits at +28 ± 2 m in O'ahu, Hawai'i. The stratigraphy, petrology, and uplift history of the Hawaiian deposits strongly suggest a correlation with MIS 11, and a compilation of amino acid racemization, uranium/thorium (alpha and mass spectrometry), and electron spin resonance ages shows a scatter between 300 and 550 kyr. When corrected for uplift, the Ka'ena Highstand succession at Wai'anae Health Center (OWH1) reveals a "stepping up" of sea level through the interglaciation, similar to that described in the Bahamas. Previous studies on O'ahu attributed all 28 m elevation of the Ka'ena Highstand to uplift since 0.5 Ma, but now it appears that only 8 m of that was caused by uplift, and the remaining 20 m by eustatic sea-level rise. These findings from O'ahu strengthen evidence for the complete disintegration of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and partial melting of the East Antarctic ice sheet during the middle Pleistocene. If the instability of polar ice sheets can be linked to prolonged warm interglaciations as the data suggest, then existing conservative predictions for the magnitude of sea-level change by future "greenhouse" warming are seriously underestimated.
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    Redescription of the Indo-Pacific Scorpionfish Scorpaenopsis fowleri and Reallocation to the Genus Sebastapistes
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2002-01) Randall, John E. ; Poss, Stuart G.
    The wide-ranging Indo-Pacific scorpionfish Scorpaenodes fowleri (Pietschmann), long placed in the genus Scorpaenopsis (largely because it lacks palatine teeth), is reclassified in the genus Sebastapistes. It is distinct from the species of Scorpaenopsis in several features: eye not extending above the dorsal profile of the head, large pores of the cephalic lateralis system, nasal pore above and adjacent to posterior nostril with a very small retrorse nasal spine (may be absent) on its upper edge, low ridgelike spines dorsally on the head, preocular spine usually embedded, sphenotic and postorbital spines absent or embedded; posterior lacrimal spine projecting slightly anteriorly, and a single spine posteriorly on the suborbital ridge with a pore-associated spine just below the ridge under the posterior third of the eye. Also significant is its very small size, the smallest of the Scorpaenidae (largest specimen, 37 mm SL; smallest mature female, 18 mm SL). The loss of palatine teeth appears to have occurred independently from the species of Scorpaenopsis. Sebastapistes fowleri is closest to S. strongia, the type species of the genus. In addition to having palatine teeth, S. strongia differs in the strongly retrorse posterior lacrimal spine and in having two spines on the suborbital ridge. The limits of Sebastapistes need reevaluation.
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    Predators of the Invasive Mussel Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Mytilidae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2002-01) Crooks, Jeffrey A.
    Musculista senhousia (Benson in Cantor, 1842) is a soft sediment-dwelling mussel that has spread anthropogenically from its native Asia to North America, Australasia, and Europe. This byssal mat-forming species can become overwhelmingly dominant and have dramatic impacts within invaded ecosystems, but its invasion may meet "ecological resistance" from native predators. In Mission Bay, San Diego, California, three fish species and two shorebirds were found to prey upon the mussel. Experimental results suggest that predation can dramatically impact intertidal mussel populations and may account for observed seasonal declines in the species. Despite the creation of a byssal cocoon, which may afford the mussel some protection, several taxa worldwide have been found to be Musculista predators. In addition, in areas where the mussel is native, humans impact mussel populations by gathering it for animal feed or bait, or to remove it from commercial shellfisheries grounds.
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    Reinstatement and Rediagnosis of Catapaguroides setosus and Description of a Second Hawaiian Species of the Genus (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridea: Paguridae)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 2002-01) McLaughlin, Patsy A. ; Pittman, Cory
    A species of the hermit crab genus Catapaguroides recently discovered in a sand-dwelling Halimeda community on the island of Maui, Hawaiian Islands, prompted a reexamination of the holotype of Catapaguroides setosus (Edmondson, 1951), described from off the south coast of O'ahu. The latter species, currently considered a junior subjective synonym of Catapaguroides fragilis (Melin), is herein adjudged neither synonymous with C. fragilis nor conspecific with the second Hawaiian species. Catapaguroides setosus is reinstated with full specific rank, rediagnosed, and illustrated. The second species, Catapaguroides hooveri McLaughlin & Pittman, n. sp., is described and illustrated.
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