Volume 40 - December 2008 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Effect of Oviposition Site Deprivation on Oviposition Performance and Egg Hatch Rate of Naturally Blood–fed Gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2008-12) Yang, Pingjun
    The effect of oviposition site deprivation on oviposition performance and egg hatch rate of naturally blood–fed gravid Culex quinquefasciatus was examined in the laboratory. The rate of gravid females ovipositing within 24 hours was not significantly affected by the period of oviposition site deprivation that ranged from 1 day to 9 weeks. However, some gravid females failed to form egg rafts, and significant differences were found among some treatments. The egg hatch rate decreased significantly with the period of oviposition site deprivation. The implications of these findings on the introduction of mosquito borne viruses are discussed.
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    Biocontrol in Hawaii: A Response to Messing (2007)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2008-12) Holland, Brenden S. ; Christensen, Carl C. ; Hayes, Kenneth A. ; Cowie, Robert H.
    In recent decades, disagreement regarding the role of biocontrol in causing ecological damage versus its agricultural benefit has increased. Because of the historical importance of biocontrol in its agriculture and the high recent extinction rates of its endemic wildlife, Hawaii has been termed the “crucible of the debate”. A number of biocontrol programs in Hawaii and the Pacific not only failed to control target pests, but have backfired spectacularly, leading directly to range reductions and extinctions of endemic taxa. We agree with Messing that rigorous biological review is important, that minimizing inefficiency, irrationality, lack of transparency and lack of accountability in government are laudable goals, and that such decisions should be based on scientific data. However, we disagree that these processes should be expedited because “state, federal, and university entomologists recognize and appreciate that biocontrol is a largely safe and eminently cost effective method”. On the contrary, the lack of evaluation and acknowledgement of potential ecological impacts is the very reason for the “slowdown in biocontrol projects” and the “demands for more stringent host-range testing.” Messing and Wright stated that “[i]n successful biological control, the results can be dramatic,” and while we agree, we would add that in unsuccessful biological control, the results can be even more dramatic.
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    Occurrence and Distribution of Mites and Ticks (Acari) of Public Health Importance on the Island of Oahu
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2008-12) Leong, Mark K.H. ; Grace, J Kenneth
    The Vector Control Branch of the Hawaii Department of Health has accumulated a large volume of written inspection data on pests of public health for the island of Oahu. Mite complaints provided the fifth greatest amount of arthropod pest information available, following mosquito, other fly, flea and bee complaints; and tick complaints provided the ninth greatest amount of arthropod pest information, following ants, cockroaches and centipedes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of the occurrence of mite and tick complaints on Oahu over a 10-year period, determine their distribution over time, graphically compare mite and tick occurrence within and between district/areas, and correlate mite and tick occurrence and distribution with season. Mite and tick data were drawn from inspection reports from 1990 to 1999, population information was obtained from Hawaii Census and State of Hawaii Data Books, 125 district/area geographic locations were defined, and mite and tick occurrence and distribution were adjusted for population and mapped using ArcView GIS 3.2. Most mite activity was reported within the central, south and east urban districts. The south urban districts of the island showed the highest number of complaints, and the levels of mite activity were highest during the spring, summer and fall. There were a very small number of mite problems around the ports of entry, mainly the airport. The primary mite species recorded were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart), the European house dust mite; Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese), the tropical fowl mite; Glycyphagus domesticus (De Geer), the grocer’s itch mite; Pyemotes boylei Krczal, the straw itch mite; and D. farinae Hughes, the American house dust mite. The main sources of mite infestations were house dust, birds, stored food products, fiber-type furniture, dried plant materials and bean pods. Tick activity was mostly reported within the leeward urban districts. South and west urban districts showed the highest number of complaints, and the levels of tick activity were highest during the winter, summer and fall. There were very few tick problems around the ports of entry. The primary tick species identified was Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latrielle, the brown dog tick. The main sources of tick infestations were dogs that were taken into a tick infested location or poorly cared for, especially if the dog was relocated on premises, removed from the premises or died. Mite and tick activity is being maintained in urban areas by human activities. As a result, dermatitis from mite infestations is possible as well as disease transmission between dogs by ticks, especially along leeward Oahu. The results indicate that educational programs should be carried out in late winter for mites and late spring for ticks, and that residential mite and tick surveys may be concentrated in a limited number of district/areas.
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    Response of the Egg-Larval Parasitoid, Fopius ceratitivorus Wharton (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to the Gall-Forming Tephritid Fly, Eutreta xanthochaeta (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2008-12) Bokonon-Ganta, Aimé H. ; Messing, Russell H.
    We investigated the potential impact of the imported biological control agent Fopius ceratitivorus Wharton, on the non-target beneficial tephritid, Eutreta xanthochaeta on the lantana weed, Lantana camara. In a no-choice test, where the wasp was offered nothing but infested lantana weed, and in a choice test, where the wasp was offered both the non-target fly and its normal host, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), F. ceratitivorus showed no positive response and caused neither parasitism nor mortality to E. xanthochaeta eggs or larvae. Infested plants exposed to F. ceratitivorus were reared until all flies eclosed, over which time not a single wasp emerged, indicating that F. ceratitivorus is unable to recognize the microhabitat of this gall-forming tephritid. These results, in addition to previous work with two other non-target tephritids, suggest minimal risk of environmental impact from this new biological control agent.
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    Occurrence and Distribution of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Cockroaches (Blattodea), Centipedes (Chilopoda), and Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Public Health Importance on the Island of Oahu
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 2008-12) Leong, Mark K.H. ; Grace, J Kenneth
    The Vector Control Branch of the Hawaii Department of Health has accumulated a large volume of written inspection data on pests of public health for the island of Oahu. Ant, cockroach, centipede and wasp complaints provide the sixth, seventh, eighth and tenth greatest amounts of arthropod pest information available, following mosquito (first), other fly (second), flea (third), bee (fourth), and mite (fifth) and tick (ninth) complaints. The objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of the occurrence of ant, cockroach, centipede and wasp complaints on Oahu over a 10 year period, determine their distribution over time, graphically compare pest occurrence within and between district/areas, and correlate pest occurrence and distribution with season. Ant, cockroach, centipede and wasp data were drawn from inspection reports from 1990-1999, population information was obtained from Hawaii Census and State of Hawaii Data Books, 125 district/area geographic locations were defined, and pest occurrence and distribution were adjusted for population and mapped using ArcView GIS 3.2. Ant activity was mostly reported within the central, south and east urban districts; and the levels of ant activity were highest during the summer and fall. The primary ant species recorded were Monomorium pharaonis (Linnaeus), the pharaoh ant; Camponotus variegatus (F. Smith), the Hawaiian carpenter ant; Ochetellus glaber (Mayr), the glaber ant; Paratrechina longicornis Latreille, the crazy ant; Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius), the tropical fire ant; Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius), the tiny yellow house ant; Anoplolepis gracilipes (F. Smith), the long-legged ant; Pheidole megacephala (Fabricius), the big-headed ant; and Technomyrmex albipes (F. Smith), the white-footed ant. Reported cockroach activity was mainly found within the central, south and east urban districts; and the levels of cockroach activity were highest during the spring and summer. The primary cockroach species recorded were Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus), the American cockroach; Blattella germanica (Linnaeus), the German cockroach; and Diploptera punctata (Eschscholtz), the Pacific beetle cockroach. Most centipede activity was reported within the leeward urban districts, and the levels of centipede activity were highest during the winter, summer and fall. The primary centipede species recorded was Scolopendra subspinipes Leach, the large centipede. Finally, wasp activity was fairly well distributed across the island, and the levels of wasp activity were highest during the fall. The primary wasp species recorded was Polistes sp., the paper wasp.