Pacific Science Volume 50, Number 1, 1996

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    Etymology of Some Common Names for New Zealand Freshwater Fishes
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1996-01) McDowall, R.M.
    Three vernacular names for New Zealand freshwater fishes have phonetic similarities that might suggest related etymologies: "kokopu" (family Galaxiidae), "cockabully" (family Tripterygiidae), and "bully" (family Eleotridae). That "k6kopu" has authentic roots in New Zealand Maori can be shown by its use in traditional Maori myth and legend, and also by the use of the same or similar words for fish elsewhere in Polynesia (e.g., "kokopu" in the Cook Islands and "o'o'pu" in Hawai'i). The etymology of "cockabully" can be traced back through "cockabulla" to an origin in "k6kopu," though the name "cockabully" is now applied to a group of fish that no evidence suggests were ever known to Maori as "kokopu." "Bully," although appealing as a contraction of "cockabully," and thus with origins in "k6kopu," almost certainly had its origins in the English "bullhead," even though the Maori "k6kopu" was probably sometimes used for fish now known as "bully."
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    A New, Distinctively Colored Snake Eel (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) from Northeastern New Zealand
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1996-01) Castle, PHJ
    Quassiremus polyclitellum, n. sp., described from three specimens line-fished at island outliers in 35-58 m represents the first record of Quassiremus Jordan & Davis, 1891, for the Indo-West Pacific. It has regularly spaced, mid-brown to orange, vertically rectangular saddles of pigment along body, tail longer than preanal length, and 166-168 vertebrae. It thus differs from East Pacific Q. nothochir (Gilbert), which has hourglass-shaped spots ringed with brown and 138-142 vertebrae, Galapagos endemic Q. evionthas (Jordan & Bollman) with small oblong spots and 149-153 vertebrae, and western Atlantic Q. ascensionis (Studer) with large, round spots above, alternating with similar spots below and 129-136 vertebrae; all three species have the tail shorter than the preanal length. The strong New World associations of Quassiremus are noted and the possible extralimital origins as larvae of the holotype and paratypes are discussed.
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    Reproductive Biology and Egg Abundance of the Yellowtail Scad or 'Omaka, Atule mate (Carangidae), in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1996-01) Clarke, Thomas A.
    Yellowtail scad or 'omaka, Atule mate (Cuvier & Valenciennes), spawn mostly between March and September or October, but there is considerable interannual variation in length of the season and egg density in Kane'ohe Bay. Spawning occurs principally in open areas of the bay, with highest egg abundances in the southern section. Almost all adult 'omaka taken in the bay were reproductively active. More than two-thirds were males, which also routinely reached sizes larger than the largest female. Sex ratio and proportion of impending or recent spawners among females differed between day and night samples; all females in day samples were actively spawning. Adults probably move into the bay only for spawning and thus represent a biased sample of the sex ratio and spawning frequency of the population associated with the bay at any given time. Batch fecundity of females 188-232 mm standard length ranged from 63,000 to 161,000; mean relative fecundity was 741 eggs per gram. The standing stock of 'omaka associated with the bay during the peak spawning season is probably at least 800-1600 kg or 5000-10,000 adults. Current annual catch of 'omaka in the bay is a large fraction of the estimated standing stock, but the latter could be much higher if spawning frequency were underestimated or individual fish did not spawn throughout the entire season.
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    Atlantid Heteropods as Living Substrata for Eggs of Halobates sericeus (Heteroptera: Gerridae)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1996-01) Seapy, Roger R.
    Atlantid heteropods are collected occasionally in Hawaiian waters with yellow, narrowly elliptical objects attached to their shells. Examination of 139 of these objects from 72 atlantids showed that they consisted of an outer, clear capsule whose contents were usually yellow, although 16 were empty and four contained brown insects at an advanced stage of development. The latter were identified as preemergent nymphs of the Pacific pelagic seaskater or ocean strider, Halobates sericeus Eschscholtz. The maximal number of attached capsules was four, although most shells (79%) had one or two. Capsules averaged 0.93 mm long and 0.36 mm wide and were deposited on either the right, left, or both sides of the shell. All 72 atlantids with egg capsules were adult males. Exclusive usage of males by H sericeus is suggested to result from swarming behavior by male atlantids at the water surface. Although egg capsules were recorded from eight species of atlantids, most (86%) were on Atlanta turriculata d'Orbigny and A. fusca Souleyet, two of the most strongly pigmented species. Hypothetically, these two species would be the most visually conspicuous to H sericeus at the ocean surface.
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    Johan Emanuel Wikstrom, with Historical Notes on the Genus Wikstroemia
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1996-01) Peterson, Bo
    This paper is a biography of the Swedish botanist Johan Emanuel Wikstrom (1789-1856), professor at the Bergius Botanic Garden, Stockholm, after whom the plant genus Wikstroemia Endl. (Thymelaeaceae) is named. A short history of the Hawaiian taxa of this genus is given.
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