Smart and Connected Cities and Communities
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ItemExamining experiences concerning goals pursued and smart dimensions to develop in cities on their path to become smart. The case of Costa Rican cities( 2023-01-03)The rapid growth of the population in cities has given rise to major urban challenges. This has led city governments to use technical solutions based on ICT, arising the concept of smart city (SC). However, the strategy followed to become smart is still very diffuse. This paper seeks to analyze the opinion of the ICT managers of local governments in their initial stage of cities to become smart. To achieve this aim, we have conducted empirical research in Costa Rican cities, which are initiating the SC process, but emphasizing the technological implementation strategy they are using. Concretely, this paper analyzes variables such as the number of ICT projects, dimensions, goals, impacts and expected timeframes as well as their association. Findings provide technological strategies that can be used and thus facilitate the implementation process of cities to become smart as well as the achievement of results.
ItemA Comparative Analysis of Seven Smart City Development Projects: Institutional, Economic, Technical, and Policy Perspectives( 2023-01-03)This paper argues for the use of a multifaceted, and contextualized approach to smart city development by unpacking how individual smart city initiatives have planned and implemented diverse projects based on their distinct environments, stakeholders, and goals. We evaluated and compared the institutional, economic, technical and policy characteristics of seven smart city initiatives (Montgomery, San Diego, New York City, Calgary, London, Vienna, Singapore). Our findings demonstrate three principal implications in smart city development. First, the surveyed smart cities established concrete cases for the use of different project development models in terms of leadership and governance styles, adoption of smart city applications, and planning and management strategies. Second, such differences stemmed from the multifaceted interactions that link environment, stakeholders, and goals. Finally, knowledge management (KM) played a crucial role in ensuring the accumulation and transferability of organizational and policymaking infrastructure within and between smart city initiatives.
ItemBuilding Climate Resilience in Smart Cities Using Open Data Services( 2023-01-03)Climate change and its consequences are among modern societies' most critical challenges. To that end, cities have focused on using information technology in their climate mitigation efforts in smart cities. Considering the magnitude of the problem and its impact on our societies, the need for building climate-resilient smart cities is crucial. In this study, we aim to understand how smart cities can achieve climate resilience. Conducting an exploratory field study and using the urban climate resilience framework as a theoretical lens, we suggest that smart cities can leverage the potential of open data and citizen engagement to reach climate resilience. In particular, our results show that building climate-resilient cities requires structural changes in citizen engagement processes and climate considerations. To that end, open data services and tools can be used to improve citizen engagement processes and develop more sustainable smart city solutions.
ItemIntellectual Disability, Digital Technologies, And Independent Transportation – A Scoping Review( 2023-01-03)Transportation is an essential aspect of everyday life. For people with intellectual disabilities transportation is one the largest barriers to community participation and a cause of inequality. However, digital technologies can reduce barriers for transportation use for people with intellectual disabilities and increase community mobility. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and map existing research on digital technology support for independent transport for people with intellectual disabilities and to identify knowledge gaps relevant for further research. The authors conducted a scoping review of articles presenting digital technologies designed to assist in outdoor navigation for people with intellectual disabilities. The search yielded 3195 items, of which 45 were reviewed and 13 included in this study. The results show that while a variation of design elements was utilized, digital technologies can effectively support individuals with intellectual disability in transport. Further research should focus on multiple contexts and types of transportation, different support needs during independent travel, real-world settings, participatory approaches, and the role of user training to enhance the adoption of digital technologies.