WRRC Unedited Project Reports

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    Assessing the Impact of the Kapahulu Storm Drain System on the Quality of Water at Kuhio Beach and the Health of the Swimmers Using the Beach
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1994-03) Fujioka, Roger S. ; Morens, David M
    The primary goal of this study was to determine the concentrations of several types of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens) in the Kapahulu storm drain system and its impact on the quality of water in Kuhio Beach. Another major goal of this study was to simultaneously conduct a pilot epidemiological study to determine whether there was a measurable increase in the illness rate of swimmers at the beach as the concentrations of indicator bacteria in the water increased. Additional goals to this study included the determination of the sources of indicator bacteria in the storm drain and to analyze the sediment and water samples from the storm drain for toxicity as well as for the presence of specific toxic chemicals using a new enzyme-immunoassay test.
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    University of Hawaii at Manoa Water Sustainability Studies: UH Manoa Campus In-Building Water Conservation Study
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2011) Babcock, Roger Jr.
    A water fixture survey was conducted on the University of Hawaii Manoa (UHM) campus in which the number of toilets, urinals, faucets, and showerheads in each building were counted. The total number of fixtures and the number of retrofittable fixture units were documented in the prioritization report of surveyed water fixtures prepared by Honeywell DMC Services, LLC in 2004. According to the prioritization report, only 4,830 water fixtures out of the 7,632 surveyed can technically and economically be retrofitted. The 4,830 retrofittable fixtures include 2,149 toilets, 265 urinals, 1,614 faucets, and 802 showerheads. Toilets and showerheads appear to constitute the greatest retrofit opportunity. Many of the urinals on the UHM campus were previously retrofitted with low-flow flush systems. A majority of the faucets on campus would require a relatively expensive entire system replacement leading to an un-economical, excessive payback period.
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    University of Hawaii at Manoa Water Sustainability Studies: UH Manoa Campus Water Use Study
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2011) Babcock, Roger Jr.
    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the water use at UH Manoa by type/category of use in order to facilitate conservation efforts, and to provide an evaluation of alternative potential non-potable supplies to meet non-potable demands. The three major categories are In-Building (potable), Landscape Irrigation (non-potable), and AC/Chillers (non-potable). These values are not readily available from UH Manoa or the BWS, so a study with calculations was required.
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    Intensive Training Program for Wastewater Operators in Hawaii Designed to Standardize Professional Outcomes
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2013-05) Young, Mathew ; Babcock, Roger Jr.
    The success of wastewater treatment plants is highly dependent on the knowledge, skills, and diligence of the licensed operators who work there. It is essential that operators acquire the knowledge needed to properly operate a wastewater treatment plant through a combination of classroom and on-the-job (OJT) types of training which are not just one-time but continuous throughout the career. High retirement expectations, coupled with low certification exam passing rates, have raised significant concerns regarding the sustainability of the wastewater operator profession as a whole. Therefore, a new wastewater operator training program in Hawaii is needed to address this issue. For this study, five different wastewater operator certification and training programs from around the United States were evaluated to serve as a comparative basis for creating a training program in Hawaii. The training programs for New Jersey, Georgia, New York, Texas, and California were examined. In this paper, wastewater operator training Boot Camp Programs have been created for the City and County of Honolulu (CCH), to provide a means of standardizing training for the profession of wastewater operators.
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    Grey's Beach Infauna Study of Source Dredge Sand Off Waikiki
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2008-08) Bailey-Brock, Julie H. ; Krause, Emily R.
    A diverse assemblage of infaunal polychaetes and invertebrates was collected in three replicate sand samples from three locations off Grey’s Beach, Waikīkī, O’ahu, Hawai’i. Infauna were extracted over 0.5 mm and 0.25 mm sieves. Specimens from the 0.5 mm fraction were identified and enumerated while those from the 0.25 fraction were qualitatively assessed. Nematodes were the most numerous specimens collected, followed by oligochaetes and harpacticoid copepods. Polychaetes ranked fourth in abundance followed by lesser abundances of thirteen other taxa. The 45 polychaetes were assigned to 15 taxa. The outside station had the highest taxonomic richness compared to both stations within the source-sand area. Polychaetes were predominantly motile, free-living taxa with an omnivorous feeding mode. The second-most-collected taxa were detritivores. Tube-dwelling species were not collected in these samples. Reproduction was evident in only two polychaete individuals of different species. None of the invertebrates collected were unusual or rare in their distribution in shallow Hawaiian sands.
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    Benthic Infaunal Communities Adjacent to the Sewage Outfalls at Agana and Northern District, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, 2005-2007
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2007-07) Bailey-Brock, Julie H. ; Krause, Emily R.
    Taxa richness and abundance are given for benthic infauna collected from sediments adjacent to ocean outfalls of the Northern District and Agana (Hagatna) Sewage Treatment Plants, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands. This addresses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requirements of 301(h) waiver permits for baseline data prior to the construction of two new outfalls to replace those currently in operation. Living infauna and sediment-surface-dwelling epifauna were collected with a remote sampler from stations off the Agana and Northern District outfalls. Samplings were done in August 2005, March 2006, and January 2007 at depths of 40 to 92 m. A total of 21,058 invertebrates were collected from both outfall areas over the three sampling years. Polychaetes were the most diverse and abundant component in the three sets of samples, with 9,068 individuals belonging to 229 taxa. Overall, polychaetes were more abundant off Northern District (5,489 individuals) than off Agana (3,579 individuals). Thirty-nine taxa (totaling 11,990 individuals) of other invertebrates were recorded: Anthozoa, Acari, Bryozoa, Cephalochordata, Chaetognatha, Crustacea (9 taxa), Echinodermata (4 taxa), Hemichordata, Hydrozoa, Insecta, Kinorhyncha, Mollusca (5 taxa), Nematoda, Nemertea, Oligochaeta, Phoronida, Platyhelminthes, Porifera, Priapula, Pycnogonida, Sipuncula, Urochordata, and Osteichthyes (a vertebrate chordate). Nematodes were abundant at both sites in the three samplings (4,605 individuals), but the Northern District locality had twice the number (3,053 individuals) of the Agana locality (1,552 individuals). Patterns of polychaete adundance and taxa richness were similar at both sites. Comparing the results of the three samplings revealed that both sites have diverse infaunal communities and that many species are common to both areas. Small differences between stations and samplings may be due to a number of factors, including reproductive events and the additional habitat provided to carbonate borers by coral rubble, shell fragments, and calcareous algae (Halimeda spp.).
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    Development and Implementation of a Water Monitoring Plan to Prepare for Criminal and Terroristic Contamination of a Drinking Water System
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2006-02) Fujioka, Roger S. ; Asahina, Audrey Y. ; Sato, Dayna M. ; Yoneyama, Bunnie S.
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    Performance Evaluation of a CBT 0.8KF-210 Wastewater Treatment Unit
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2006-01) Babcock, Roger W. ; Senthill, Atiim ; Huang, Tieshi ; Chanthawornsawat, Yingyot ; Kanpirom, Sumon ; Hu, Jing
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    Column Study of the Transport of Selected Contaminants in a Hawaii Soil Treated With Recycled Water
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2005-09) Snehota, Michal ; Chen, Jingyu ; Mohanty, Sanjay ; Lichwa, Joseph ; Ray, Chittaranjan
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    Assessing the Microbial Quality of Potable Water Sources on the Island of Hawaii
    (Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2005-04) Fujioka, Roger S. ; Sato, Dayna M. ; Vithanage, Gayatri ; Yoneyama, Bunnie S.