Pacific Science Volume 31, Number 1, 1977

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.


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    The SO4:Cl Ratio in Oceanic Rainwater
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-01) Kroopnick, Peter
    Rainwater samples collected on 20 islands in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans since 1961 have been analyzed for dissolved sulfate and chloride ion concentrations. Samples from sparsely populated islands have S04: CI ratios approximately equal to that observed in seawater. Notable exceptions are samples from Midway and Christmas islands, which are enriched in sulfate, and those from the ocean stations Echo, Papa, and Victor, which are depleted in sulfate. The 8180 of the oxygen in the S04 ion ranges from 9.5 %0 in seawater and unpolluted rain to 11.2 %0 in rain derived from a continental air mass. Aerosols and snow samples have higher 8180 values of 11.2 to 14.8%0 due to their greater efficiency in trapping locally produced sulfate pollutants.
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    Gracilaria dotyi sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales): a New Intertidal Species from Oahu, Hawaiian Islands
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-01) Hoyle, Mitchell D.
    A new species of Gracilaria (G. doryi sp. nov.) is described from Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. The species resembles G. coronopifolia but differs in several morphological and anatomical features. It has a surprisingly limited distribution on the southwest coast and is the only truly intertidal species of Gracilaria thus far reported from the Hawaiian Islands.
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    A Taxonomic Review of Hawaiian Gelidiales (Rhodophyta)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-01) Santelices, Bernabe
    The present study reviews most collections of Gelidiales known from Hawaii. Three genera, each one including four species, are recognized among nearly 350 specimens examined. The genus Gelidiefla is represented in Hawaii by G. acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann et Hamel, G. adnata Dawson, G. machrisiana Dawson, and G. myrioclada B0rgesen. The genus Gelidium includes G. crinale (Turner) Lamouroux, G. pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Lamouroux) Le Jolis, and G. reediae Loomis. The genus Pterocladia is represented in Hawaii by P. bulbosa Loomis, P. caloglossoides (Howe) Dawson, P. caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices, and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Bornet et Thuret. Only six of the 21 species of Gelidiales previously reported for Hawaii were found to be represented in the material studied. There is evidence of misidentification in at least eight cases, and two specific epithets based on Hawaiian specimens are considered to be synonymous with other species. Five species previously reported from Hawaii are still unchecked due to their absence from the material studied. Seven previously unreported species of Gelidiales were added as new records for the Hawaiian flora. A key is given that identifies the Hawaiian Gelidiales, and this is followed by a description, with illustrations and a discussion, of each ofthe 12 species found.
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    Observations on the Life History of Diplectrum pacificum and D. macropoma (Pisces, Serranidae) from the Bay of Panama
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-01) Bortone, Stephen A.
    Diplectrum pacificum and D. macropoma were collected in abundance from January through February 1973 at a depth of 20-30 m in the Bay of Panama. Juvenile D. pacificum apparently occur in shallow water (less than 2 m). The substrate where adults of both species occur sympatrically is fine sand and silt bottom with some shell. Both species display nearly identical negative allometric growth. Diplectrum pacificum reaches a maximum size of 219 mm standard length. The oldest specimens were from age-group 6. Diplectrum macropoma attains a maximum size of 130 mm standard length. The oldest specimens were from age-group 4. Both species tend to aggregate in definite size groups. Both species feed predominately on small shrimp and other crustaceans. Diplectrum pacificum tends to select larger shrimp than does D. macropoma. Reproductively, both species are synchronous hermaphrodites. Testicular tissue is restricted to a morphologically distinct, species-specific area. Mature eggs pass into an ovarian sinus before being deposited. Sperm and ovarian ducts exit separately. No evidence was found of internal self-fertilization in either species. Behaviorly, both species show an affinity for the substrate and display color patterns that are similar to the active-inactive color pattern described for another related species, D. formosum.
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    Food Supply, Feeding Habits, and Egg Production in Pacific Mole Crabs (Hippa pacifica Dana)
    (University of Hawaii Press, 1977-01) Wenner, Adrian M.
    Well-studied hippid sand crabs (genus Emerita) on wave-washed beaches in the temperate zone obtain their food by filtering microorganisms from the water. Related mole crabs (genus Hippa) in the tropics and subtropics have raptorial feeding appendages, which permit these animals to grasp and feed upon fresh meat items. They apparently depend upon those organisms that move onto beaches as a result of wind-driven surface waters. In Hawaii, Portuguese men-of-war (Physalia) is the most obvious natural food supply, but tests with other types of bait indicated that shark or squid are equally effective in capturing animals. At Enewetak Atoll, where Pkysalia occurs only rarely, mole crabs thrive on mysids and perhaps other similar-sized zooplankton. There also existed a strong correlation between food availability and egg production, both in Hawaii and at Enewetak Atoll. In fact, an observed" seasonality" in egg production seemed to be a direct result of food availability rather than of changes in temperature or photoperiod.
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