Pacific Science Volume 18, Number 3, 1964

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    Additional Records of Hawaiian Platyctenea (Ctenophora)
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-07) Matthews, Donald C. ; Townsley, Sidney J.
    In a previous paper (Matthews, 1954 :282) representative samples of all orders of Ctenophora were reported for Hawaii. Of these, the platyctenids were represented by only two immature specimens of Coeloplana dubosequii collected on the reef of the Hawaii Marine Laboratory on December 31, 1952. This small, pale, yellowish-green platyctenid has not been collected since, although the alga (Hypnea nidifica) on which it was found has been periodically examined. Also, continuous examination of spines of the slate-pencil urchin, Heterocentrotes mamillatus (viz. Utinomi, 1961 :116, pI. 58, no. 9), has failed to reveal platyctenids, although Dawydoff (1938: 161) reported having collected Coeloplana weilli on this urchin in the region of Ream (Gulf of Siam, Cambodia). It is rather ironical that, quite by chance, plaryctenids were taken in 1961 on the spines of the black urchin, Echinothrix diadema, collected from the sandy bottom in about 10 m of water at the seaward edge of Waikiki reef. Again, in January, April, and May 1962, and in April 1963, platyctenids were taken on E. diadema at about the same depth, near Buoy No.8, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu.
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    The Chaetognatha of the Monsoon Expedition in the Indian Ocean
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-07) Alvarino, Angeles
    This report deals with the chaetognaths collected by the "R/ V Argo" during the Monsoon Expedition in the Indian Ocean in 1960 and 1961. The Monsoon collections extended from about 8°S to 42°S (Fig. 1); that is, the region roughly limited by the Equatorial Countercurrent and the Subantarctic West Wind Drift ( the Indian Central waters extending to the Subtropical Convergence); and also the Indonesian seas and the South Australian waters. This report includes only data from the Indian Ocean. Data from collections made by the same Expedition in the Pacific have been added to the study of the chaetognaths of the Pacific. However, data derived from the Pacific are used here also in discussing the distribution of the species. The Monsoon Expedition covered in part the regions surveyed for chaetognaths by the Gazelle, Gauss, Sealark, Siboga, and Snellius expeditions, with the following exceptions: the Bay of Bengal, west coast of Ceylon, and waters of Somalia and eastern Africa.
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    Some Bathyal Pacific Amphipoda Collected by the U.S.S. Albatross
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-07) Barnard, J.L.
    Several bathyal Amphipoda from the U.S.S. "Albatross" expeditions of 1888 onward (Holmes, 1908; Shoemaker, 1925) remained to be determined in the collections of the U.S. National Museum, and the results of their study are presented here. Increasing interest is being shown in faunas on bottoms of 200-2000 m. Although these depths comprise only 8.5% of the world's sea-floor, they perhaps support the remnants of the ancient abyssal fauna occupying depths greater than 2000 m prior to the Tertiary cooling of the seas (Madsen, 1961; Barnard, 1961, 1962; and their bibliographies).
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    Some Marine Isopod Crustaceans from off the Southern California Coast
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-07) Schultz, George A.
    In the summer of 1962 the author identified isopods caught in the submarine canyons off the southern California coast by workers, of the research vessel "Valero IV" of the Allan Hancock Foundation of the University of Southern California. The results of that work have been published (Schultz, 1964). There were additional isopods collected during the voyage which were not part of the canyon fauna and they are considered in this paper. The specimens were taken from the benthic environment by means of an Orange Peel Grab or a Campbell Grab bottom sampler. Ten species were taken, 3 of which were new to science.
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    Shell Selection and Invasion Rates of Some Pacific Hermit Crabs
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1964-07) Orians, Gordon H. ; King, Charles E.
    Three species of littoral hermit crabs from Horseshoe Cove, Bodega Head, Sonoma County, California, and three sublittoral pagurids from Chinimi Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, have been examined with respect to their shell selection and invasion rates. Periodic removal of crabs from marked areas resulted in immigrations of surprising magnitude. By comparison of actual collection patterns with those predictable from the alternates of density dependence and density independence, there is an indication that the observed immigration rates result from density dependent dispersal. While our data are not conclusive, the method presented is of interest and of possible utility for examining problems of this nature. Shell selection is discussed from the bases of both laboratory and field observations. Each of the species is shown to utilize the shells of different gastropods with different frequencies. Finally, behavioral aspects are examined as they relate to the distribution of the California hermit crabs.
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