Volume 24, Nos. 2 & 3 – 1983 : Hawaiian Entomological Society

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    Description of Hamakua Pamakani Plume Moth from Hawaii (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Yano, Koji ; Heppner, John B.
    A new plume moth, Oidaematophorus beneficus n. sp., is described and figured. This plume moth has been introduced from Mexico to control a weed, Ageratina riparia (Regel) K. & R., known as Hamakua pamakani in Hawaii. This is the first record of the genus from Hawaii.
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    Spatial Distribution of the Migrants of the Corn Delphacid, Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in Cornfields
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Takara, J. ; Nishida, T.
    Spatial distribution of the migrants of the corn delphacid in plantings of corn used for silage was determined by sampling population density at sites throughout fields. By this means, migrants were found to aggregate along borders of fields. There were variations to this pattern, but the same borders were generally infested in successive plantings of the same field. Within each field, population density decreased continuously with distance from the borders. This decline was shown to be described by the relationship log(m) = log(a)+bx, where m is the average number of migrants per plant at distance, x (in meters), from the edge, and a is the average per plant at the field edge. Calculation of b, the regression coefficient, and use of this information in pest surveillance are described.
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    The Biology, Host Range, Parasites, and Hyperparasites of Koa Seed Insects in Hawaii: a Review
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Stein, John D.
    The biology and host range of koa seed insects, their parasites, and hyperparasites in Hawaii are reviewed. The information reported may be applicable to other native or introduced legumes because of the wide host range of a few of the insects.
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    Insects Infesting Acacia koa (Legumosae) and Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) in Hawaii: Annotated List
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Stein, John D.
    Phytophagous insects associated with Acacia koa and Metrosideros polymorpha in Hawaii are listed. Information on their distribution within the State and mode of damage to host is included.
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    A New Rhamphothrips from Hawaii, Jamaica and Florida, and Notes on R. pomeroyi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Sakimura, K.
    Rhamphothrips pandens Sakimura, new species, was first collected in 1966 on Oahu and Kauai of the Hawaiian Islands. The same species was also found in Jamaica and Florida. R. pomeroyi (Moulton) was restudied.
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    Development of the Orchid Weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Mau, Ronald F.L.
    Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse) is a weevil pest of Vanda, Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, and other orchids in Hawaii. Development of all immature stages usually occurred within orchid pseudobulbs. Eggs were deposited into cavities made by adult feeding and hatched in an average of 11.3 days. Larval development was completed in approximately 117 days. Larvae pupated in cells within the gallery. The pupal stadium averaged 15.9 days. The entire life cycle required an average of 144 days. A 47 day preoviposition period was observed. Females laid an average of 2.4 eggs per week during their lifespan. Feeding and oviposition occurred primarily during daylight hours.
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    Microenvironmental Factors Regulating the Flight of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in Hawaii (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Leong, KLH ; Tamashiro, M. ; Yates, J. ; Su, N.Y.
    Wind velocity, light intensity, soil temperature, vapor pressure deficit in the colony, vapor pressure deficit at the surface of the flight slits, and vapor pressure deficit at 1 m above the soil were measured during the swarming season. The vapor pressure deficits and soil temperature were not critical factors for flight since they were in a favorable range during the observation period. Light intensity had to drop to 10.8 lumen/m2 before flight was initiated. Flight was terminated when the light was reduced to 0.14 lumen/m2. Light intensity, however, was not limiting since the intensity dropped every evening. The key microenvironmental factor regulating flight was the wind velocity at the flight slits. Flight was initiated if the wind velocity was below 3.7 km/h. If the wind increased to over 3.7 km/h after flight was started, flight was terminated.
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    Living Plants in Hawaii Attacked by Coptotermes formosanus
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Lai, P.Y. ; Tamashiro, M. ; Yates, J.R. ; Su, N.Y. ; Fujii, J.K. ; Ebesu, R.H.
    Forty-seven species of living plants in 27 families were found infested by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in Hawaii. The symptoms caused by the infestations were dependent on the mode of attack. Although an actual value was not placed on the economic losses caused by the attacks, evidence indicates that the losses are substantial.
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    Sudan Red 7B, a Dye Marker for Coptotermes formosanus
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Lai, P.Y. ; Tamashiro, M. ; Fujii, J.K. ; Yates, J.R. ; Su, N.Y.
    Of 9 dyes fed to workers of Coptotermes formosanus, only oil soluble Deep Black BB and Sudan Red 7B stained the termites sufficiently and were retained long enough to be useful as markers. Workers fed Red 7B, however, absorbed the dye faster, retained the dye longer and had a lower mortality rate than those fed Deep Black BB. Red 7B was found in the fat bodies, mid- and hindguts, muscles, brain, and in the protozoa, but not in Malpighian tubules and tracheal matrix. The density of the termites in the staining chamber seemed to affect the depth of staining and the numbers of protozoa in the termite. The termites stained at a density of 900 individuals per petri dish stained more deeply and better than those stained at 100 individuals per petri dish. Moreover, the numbers of protozoa in the termites stained at the 900 termite density were higher than in termites stained at 100 per petri dish. Red 7B demonstrated all the characteristics required for a suitable marker for C formosanus.
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    Abundance and Distribution of the Three Species of Symbiotic Protozoa in the Hindgut of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    (Hawaiian Entomological Society, 1983) Lai, P.Y. ; Tamashiro, M. ; Fujii, J.K.
    Workers, soldiers, nymphs and alates of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, all harbored the same 3 species of protozoa. Workers, nymphs, and alates had a larger number of protozoa than the soldiers. The relative abundance of the protozoa differed in the different castes. In the worker, Holomastigotoides hartmanni Koidzumi was the predominant species in numbers, followed by Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi and Spirotrichonympha leidyi Koidzumi while in the alate. S. leidyi was predominant. Each protozoan species apparently occupied a more or less specific location in the worker's hindgut. P. grassii was predominant in the first pouch, H. hartmanni in the second, and H. hartmanni and S. leidyi in the third pouch and excreta. This may indicate a difference in digestive roles of the protozoa and/or a difference in the oxygen requirements of the 3 species. There were no significant differences in the total number of protozoa found in the workers from 3 different colonies.