Pacific Science Volume 45, Number 3, 1991

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Pacific Science is a quarterly publication devoted to the biological and physical sciences of the Pacific Region.

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    45:3 Table of Contents - Pacific Science
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1991-07)
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    Fate of Carbaryl, l-Naphthol, and Atrazine in Seawater
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1991-07) Armbrust, Kevin L. ; Crosby, Donald G.
    The fate of carbaryl, l-naphthol, and atrazine was determined under light and dark conditions in filter-sterilized and raw (unfiltered) seawater. Carbaryl was hydrolyzed in the dark, quantitatively, to l-naphthol with a half-life of 24 hr at pH 7.9 or 23 hr at pH 8.2 (24°C). Naphthol was stable in the dark in sterile seawater, but was degraded to undetectable levels in 96 hr in raw seawater. In artificial sunlight, carbaryl degraded with a half-life of 5 hr and l-naphthol was completely degraded after 2 hr. No further degradation products were observed for either compound. Atrazine was stable under light and dark conditions in sterile seawater; however, in raw seawater, it was degraded by 23% after 96 hr. These data suggest that atrazine may be stable enough in seawater to permit exposure of susceptible marine life, while, in the presence of sunlight, carbaryl and l-naphthol would rapidly dissipate to undetectable levels.
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    Fate of Model Xenobiotics in Calcareous Marine Algae
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1991-07) Inouye, Laura S. ; Crosby, Donald G.
    Uptake, depuration, and metabolism of p-nitroanisole (PNA) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) were investigated in Halimeda, Padina, and Porolithon species, all of which are calcareous marine algae found in tropical waters . The algae were exposed to filtered seawater solutions of either PNA or PNP in a static system for 24 hr (uptake period), then placed in clean water and allowed to release absorbed chemical and possible metabolites for 24 hr (depuration period). Concentrations of the chemicals were monitored spectrophotometrically, and the water at the end of uptake and depuration was extracted onto a column of Amberlite XAD-4 resin, eluted sequentially with methylene chloride and methanol, and analyzed for metabolites by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that the algae absorb PNA but not PNP. There was no indication that they were capable of metabolizing PNA, except inconsistently, to PNP. However, half of the absorbed PNA remained unaccounted for, and may either have been metabolized to undetected metabolites or bound to tissue macromolecules.
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    Effects of Nutrient Enrichment and Water Motion on the Coral Pocillopora damicornis
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1991-07) Stambler, Noga ; Popper, Nurit ; Dubinsky, Zvy ; Stimson, John
    Exposure of the hermatypic coral Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus) to elevated levels of dissolved inorganic phosphorus did not affect the colony or the zooxanthellae. Exposure to elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen + phosphorus led to an increase in algal density, and as a result, to an increase in the chlorophyll concentration. These latter two experimental enrichments slowed skeletal growth rate of the corals, probably because of a decrease in the photosynthetic rate of the algae and perhaps a decrease in the translocation of photosynthetic products from the algae to the coral. The algae probably used the photosynthetic energy for their own increased growth. Experimental manipulation of water motion used in these experiments did not affect the coral or the symbiotic algae.
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    Effects of Two Petroleum Products on Pocillopora damicornis Planulae
    (University of Hawai'i Press, 1991-07) Te, Franklyn Tan
    Pocillopora damicornis planulae were exposed to different concentrations of benzene and gasoline:oil mixtures to determine the lethal concentrations and biological responses of the coral larvae. Bioassay tests with either open or closed static solutions of the test compounds were monitored. Planulae settlement was considered as the visible reaction to the hydrocarbon compound introduced. This study found that corallite formation was significantly influenced by the different concentrations of the test compound, but no clear correlation between concentration of the test compound and rate of corallite formation was ascertained. Mortality was minimal in most of the test concentrations utilized in the experiments.
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