WRRCPR No.94-05 Assessing The Impact of Mokapu Sewage Outfall on the Shoreline Water Quality of Kailua Bay (KB-2)

dc.contributor.author Fujioka, Roger S. en_US
dc.contributor.author Wu, Chunmei en_US
dc.contributor.author Fujioka, Carrie K. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2014-12-13T02:36:03Z
dc.date.available 2014-12-13T02:36:03Z
dc.date.issued 1993-10 en_US
dc.description.abstract The discharge of secondary treated sewage effluent from the Mokapu Ocean Outfall into Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, represents a point source of pollution to the bay. Public health considerations are therefore of significant importance due to bodily contact and the possible ingestion of recreational water. The impact of the Mokapu outfall on the shoreline water quality at Kailua Bay was assessed in 1990 and 1991. The concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens) were determined in sewage effluent samples and in water samples collected from the zone of mixing (ZOM) sites, offshore sites, nearshore sites, and shoreline sites of Kailua Bay. The indicator bacterial loads discharged from the outfall were on the orders of 106 E. coli/100 ml, 105 enterococci/100 ml, and 104 C. perfringens/ 100 ml. Within the ZOM, some of the sewage surfaced, however most of it was transported submerged and in a northerly direction. The sewage was also transported submerged to the two offshore sites located north and south of the ZOM but preferentially north. The nearshore data also suggested the movement of sewage in a direction north-northwest of the outfall. The absence or recoveries of only very low numbers of bacteria from the nearshore sites closest to the Kailua shoreline did not provide evidence that sewage from the outfall was possibly impacting the quality of the shoreline recreational waters. The geometric means of the seven true shoreline sites all met Hawaii's marine recreational water quality standard. The two other shoreline sites which equaled or exceeded the standard are actually the mouths of land-based fresh water sources which are known to contain high concentrations of indicator bacteria. The overall results suggested that the quality of shoreline water is more likely impacted by land-based sources such as rainfall events which increase surface runoff. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship City and County of Honolulu, Department of Wastewater Management en_US
dc.format.extent 143 pages en_US
dc.identifier.citation Fujioka RS, Wu C, Fujioka CK. 1993. Assessing the impact of Mokapu sewage outfall on the shoreline water quality of Kaulua Bay (KB-2). Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC project report, 94-05. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/34425
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries WRRC Project Reports en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries 94-05 en_US
dc.rights Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States en_US
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/
dc.subject wastewater outfall en_US
dc.subject water quality en_US
dc.subject shoreline en_US
dc.subject Mokapu Ocean Outfall en_US
dc.subject Kailua Bay en_US
dc.subject Oahu en_US
dc.subject Hawaii en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Kailua Bay (Oahu, Hawaii) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Water quality -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage disposal in the ocean -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Marine microbiology -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Ocean outfalls -- Environmental aspects -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.title WRRCPR No.94-05 Assessing The Impact of Mokapu Sewage Outfall on the Shoreline Water Quality of Kailua Bay (KB-2) en_US
dc.type Report en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US
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