Water Quality Characteristics of Honokohau Harbor: A Subtropical Embayment Affected by Groundwater Intrusion

dc.contributor.author Bienfang, P. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2008-06-04T21:16:44Z
dc.date.available 2008-06-04T21:16:44Z
dc.date.issued 1980-07 en_US
dc.description.abstract This study describes the water quality characteristics of a subtropical embayment that is markedly affected by the infiltration of cold, nutrient-rich groundwater. The spatial, vertical, and tidal variations of physicochemical characteristics (e.g., temperature, salinity, oxygen, turbidity) and nutrients (e.g., nitrate, phosphate, ammonium) are depicted and show conditions of pronounced stratification. The harbor supports an unusual two-layered structure of cold, brackish, nutrient-rich waters overlying a warm, low-nutrient, oceanic layer. Temperature and salinity range from 20.5 to 24.5°C and from 18.1 to 35%0 at the surface and bottom (5.5 m), respectively. High nutrient levels in the surface layer (about 30 ug-atoms N03 -/liter and 2 ug-atoms PO4 3 -/liter and the close correlation with thermohaline parameters identify groundwater intrusion as the major nutrient source. The prolific (1.5-2 million gallons per day) and continual groundwater influx produces persistent flow out of the harbor irrespective of the tidal condition and produces harbor flushing rates six to ten times those calculated for tidal flushing alone. The potential eutrophying effects of the groundwater nutrients are avoided as a result of the rapid harbor flushing. This study details the potential impact of groundwater nutrients on the aesthetic and water quality character of island coastal developments, indicates that consideration of terrestrial features (e.g., land slope, rainfall) cannot be used to predict the likelihood or extent of groundwater effects, and describes the importance of infrastructure design to optimize flushing as a critical criterion in maintaining good water quality in such embayments. en_US
dc.identifier.citation Bienfang P. 1980. Water quality characteristics of Honokohau Harbor: a subtropical embayment affected by groundwater intrusion. Pac Sci 34(3): 279-291. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0030-8870 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/1627
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher University of Hawaii Press en_US
dc.title Water Quality Characteristics of Honokohau Harbor: A Subtropical Embayment Affected by Groundwater Intrusion en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US
Files
Original bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
No Thumbnail Available
Name:
v34n3-279-291.pdf
Size:
6.04 MB
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Description:
License bundle
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
No Thumbnail Available
Name:
license.txt
Size:
1.71 KB
Format:
Item-specific license agreed upon to submission
Description: