Pacific Science, Volume 65, Number 1, 2011

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    New Records of Butterflies from Yap Outer Islands, Micronesia: Fais Island and Ngulu, Ulithi, and Woleai Atolls.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-01) Buden, Donald W. ; Tennent, W. John
    Eight species of butterflies are recorded from among four different island groups in Yap Outer Islands, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Five species (63%) belong to the family Lycaenidae; the three others to Nymphalidae. Hypolimnas bolina is the most ubiquitous species, being the only one recorded on all the islands. Ngulu Atoll, which has the smallest land area, also has one of the most depauperate butterfly faunas, with only two species recorded, but it is located between Palau and Yap proper, which host the richest butterfly faunas in southwestern Micronesia. Ulithi Atoll, which is nearest to potential source populations on Yap, has the largest number of species. Small island size, limited habitat diversity, and lack of sufficient host plants combined with distance from potential source populations are likely to be the main factors contributing to the small number of species on these low-lying coralline islands.
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    Proposal of the Name Chaetomorpha vieillardii (Ku¨ tz.), n. comb., for a Large-Celled Tropical Chaetomorpha (Chlorophyta).
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-01) Wynne, Michael J.
    Type material of Bangia vieillardii Ku¨ tz. from New Caledonia has been studied and determined to belong to the green algal genus Chaetomorpha. The name Chaetomorpha vieillardii (Ku¨ tz.), n. comb., is effected, and this binomial is proposed to serve for what has previously been known in tropical seas as C. crassa. Genuine C. crassa (C. Agardh) Ku¨ tz., based on European type specimens, has been treated by others to be conspecific with C. linum (O. F. Mu¨ ll.) Ku¨ tz.
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    Trace Metal Partitioning in a Nearshore Tropical Environment: Geochemistry of Carbonate Reef Flats Adjacent to Suva Harbor, Fiji Islands.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-01) Collen, John D. ; Atkinson, Jane E. ; Patterson, John E.
    Namuka Reef is a broad fringing reef flat situated immediately adjacent to the populous and heavily industrialized areas surrounding Suva Harbor, Fiji Islands. Reef flat sediments are mainly very poorly to moderately sorted carbonate gravels and sands with occasional boulders and very little silt, with terrigenous sediments limited to a narrow, nearshore strip. Bulk sediment geochemical analyses show that trace metal concentrations are generally very low across the reef flat and closely similar to pristine reef areas offshore rather than to the nearby contaminated areas within Suva Lagoon. Exceptions occur close to villages, however, where sediments are enriched in Pb, As, and other trace metals, and possibly near wreck sites on the reef where Fe increases locally. These data together with those for major and minor oxides show that there is little or no movement of sediments from the rivers and deeper lagoon onto the carbonate reef flat even though extreme events such as tsunamis or cyclones affect the area. This indicates that the geomorphic separation of reef flats from adjacent contaminated environments is sufficient to prevent the introduction of solid contaminants. Reef flats may thus retain healthy ecosystems and provide resources to the community even though close to heavily contaminated areas.
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    Pelagic Larval Duration and Settlement Size of Apogonidae, Labridae, Scaridae, and Tripterygiidae Species in a Coral Lagoon of Okinawa Island, Southern Japan.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-01) Ishihara, Taiki ; Tachihara, Katsunori
    Pelagic larval duration and settlement sizes in species of Apogonidae, Labridae, Scaridae, and Tripterygiidae in a coral lagoon in southern Japan were examined. Sampling was conducted monthly from July 2004 to June 2005 in the coral lagoon and channel of the Oh-do Beach on Okinawa Island, Japan. Pelagic larval duration was estimated by the number of otolith increments. Mean standard length at settlement of apogonids ranged from 7.7 to 13.9 mm, and mean pelagic larval duration ranged from 14.0 to 30.6 days (14 species, 418 individuals). In labrids, mean standard length at settlement and pelagic larval duration varied greatly (mean standard length: 5.4–11.0 mm; pelagic larval duration: 18–57 days, four species, four individuals). Scarids showed consistent mean standard length at settlement and pelagic larval duration (mean standard length: 7.1–7.6 mm; pelagic larval duration: 29–42 days, five species, 25 individuals). In tripterygiids, pelagic larval duration was more consistent (range: 18–29 days, mean: 22.2e2.1 days), but mean standard length at settlement ranged from 7.8 to 10.3 mm (six species, 32 individuals). These results suggest that the pelagic larval duration of Apogonidae and Tripterygiidae (nonpelagic egg spawning) is shorter than that of Labridae and Scaridae (pelagic egg spawning), and the dispersal strategy of labrids and scarids may include wider dispersal than that of apogonids and tripterygiids.
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    Prehistoric Birds and Bats from the Atiahara Site, Tubuai, Austral Islands, East Polynesia.
    (Honolulu, University of Hawaii, 2011-01) Worthy, Trevor H. ; Bollt, Robert
    The Austral Islands in French Polynesia have a depauperate land bird fauna and until recently have been little investigated archaeologically or paleontologically to know whether this is natural. Here we report an avifaunal assemblage and bones of bats of the genus Pteropus from the Archaic period (ca. A.D. 1000–1450) cultural site Atiahara, on Tubuai. Fifteen taxa are reported from the island, and a new species of rail in the genus Gallirallus is described. The data indicate that several petrel species have been extirpated from the island and that former land bird inhabitants included at least two small pigeons and a flightless rail.