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Title: The Hawaii fruit fly area-wide pest management program: accomplishments and future directions. 
Author: Vargas, Roger I.; Mau, Ronald L.; Jang, Eric B.
Date: 2007-12
Publisher: Hawaiian Entomological Society
Citation: Vargas RI, Mau RF, Jang EB. 2007. The Hawaii fruit fly area-wide pest management program: accomplishments and future directions. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 39:99-104.
Abstract: Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Mediterranean fruit fly,
Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and
the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel), have
accidentally become established in Hawaii, and attack more than 400 different host
fruits. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable
industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to
export, and provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into other parts of the
world. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii rely heavily on the application of
organophosphate insecticides to crops. In 1999 a 5 yr Area-Wide Pest Management
(AWPM) program was initiated for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The AWPM
program integrated two or more control components (field sanitation, protein bait
sprays, male annihilation, sterile insects, and parasitoids) into a comprehensive package
that has been economically viable, environmentally acceptable, and sustainable.
The program has resulted in areawide suppression of fruit flies, a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and the impetus for further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii.
ISSN: 0073-134X
Keywords: Area Wide Program, Bactrocera cucurbitae, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera latifrons, Ceratitis capitata, fruit flies, Hawaii, integrated pest management, pest control programs

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