An Atlas of the Brain Development of Euprymna scolopes to the Hatching Stage

Galat, Absalon
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University of Hawaii at Manoa
The Mollusca are one of the largest and most diverse phyla of the animal kingdom, comprising of classes that include bivalves, snails, and cephalopods. Molluscs also display a broad spectrum of nervous system organization from a primitive protostome level to highly advanced nervous systems that have been compared to vertebrates in their function. Cephalopods represent the pinnacle of this advancement. Whilst some inroads have been made concerning molecular correlates of molluscan development, the embryonic development of the cephalopod brain has not been examined extensively. The specific aim of this project was to document the anatomy and embryonic development of the brain of the model organism, Euprymna scolopes, endemic to the coastal waters of Hawaii. A number of methodological approaches were taken to visualize the embryonic nervous system, including immunological probes specific for neuronal cell components in combination with laser confocal microscopy of wholemounts, and conventional histology of late embryonic stages up to the hatching stage. Comparison of the anatomy of the nervous system of Euprymna scolopes with published reports of two teuthoid cephalopods during the later developmental stages shows that the formation is similar in its developmental progression.
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