Observations of the Biologies and Interrelationships of Parasites Attacking the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.), in Hawaii

Date
1983
Authors
Gerling, Dan
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Publisher
Hawaiian Entomological Society
Abstract
Prospaltella transvena, Eretmocerus nr. haldemani, Encarsia formosa and Aleurodophilus pergandiellus were recovered as parasites of Trialeurodes vaporariorum on Sonchus oleraceus and Emilia spp. on Oahu between January and May 1980. Parsitization often was close to 100%. The first three parasite species were relatively abundant; the last was rare. High parasitization was probably one factor limiting whitefly infestations on these plant species. Multiple parasitism involving Encarsia type parasites and Eretmocerus was frequent, probably because the latter lays eggs externally and the former, internally. Superparasitism by Eretmocerus was rare. Superparasitism by the "Encarsia type" parasites (Encarsia, Aleurodophilus and Prospaltella) was more frequent, but was indistinguishable, in part, from male hyperparasitism.
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Citation
Gerling D. 1983. Observations of the biologies and interrelationships of parasites attacking the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (West.), in Hawaii. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 24:217-225.
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