WRRCTMR No.54 Bromine Chloride: An Alternative Disinfectant to Chlorine

Keswick, Bruce H.
Fujioka, Roger S.
Burbank, Nathan C Jr.
Loh, Philip C.
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Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Bromine chloride (BrCl) was evaluated as an alternative to chlorine as a disinfectant of water and waste water by comparing the efficiency of these two chemicals to inactivate type 1 poliovirus seeded in various aqueous solutions. In a nitrogen-free buffer at pH 6.0, the minimum concentration of BrCl required to effectively inactivate poliovirus (4-log reduction after 15 min at 25°C) was 0.15 mg/l, whereas 0.3 mg/l of chlorine was required to accomplish the same effect. The virus inactivating efficiency of BrCl was not interfered within the range of pH 6 to 1O. Furthermore, the addition of various concentrations of glycine and NH4Cl to the nitrogen-free buffer solutions more effectively interfered with the virus inactivating properties of chlorine than BrCl. To simulate waste water disinfection, 1 to 5 mg/l of BrCl and chlorine were added to activated sludge treated sewage effluent seeded with poliovirus, mixed well, and titered after 15 min at 25°C. The results show that the inactivating effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/l dose of both chlorine and BrCl were equivalent and inefficient. However, at a dose of 5 mg/l, BrCl inactivated 5 logs of virus, whereas chlorine inactivated only 2 logs of virus. These results indicate that BrCl should be seriously considered as a potential alternative to chlorine as a disinfectant.
Keswick BH, Fujioka RS, Burbank NC, Loh PC. 1977. Bromine chloride: an alternative disinfectant to chlorine. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical memorandum report, 54.
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