Description and map of the plant communities of Kaloko-Honokohau National Cultural Park

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1990-11
Authors
Canfield, Joan E.
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Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany
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Two lichens, three ferns, and 69 flowering plants are recorded from Kaloko-Honokohau National Cultural Park. Thirty-nine species (53%) are alien (introduced since 1778). Eleven species have been declared noxious by the State of Hawai'i. Eight species pose a threat to archaeological sites. Two grasses constitute a fire hazard. Eight major and four lesser plant communities are distinguished and mapped on the basis of dominant growth form, species composition, and substrate: I. nearly barren 'a'a, II. four types of strand vegetation (low, scrub, shrub, and forest), III. anchialine ponds, IV. marsh and mangrove forest, V. grassland, VI. inland scrub, VII. savanna, and VIII. predominantly inland forest. Nine of the 11 communities are usually dominated by alien species. Only the low strand vegetation and strand scrub are typically native-dominated. A total of 78 localized plant associations are distinguished within the 11 communities. Management recommendations concerning alien plants are to eradicate mangroves, critical species disturbing archaeological sites, and species with very limited populations. More common aliens can be replaced in part with culturally significant or endemic species. Feral animals do not appear to pose a major threat at present. Proposed Park facilities should have little impact on the native vegetation, except insofar as construction activity promotes the introduction and spread of alien species.
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Canfield JE. 1990. Description and map of the plant communities of Kaloko-Honokohau National Cultural Park. Honolulu (HI): Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Botany. PCSU Technical Reports, 73.
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