Does Second Language Instruction Make a Difference? A Review of Research Long, Michael H. en_US
dc.contributor.department University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language. en_US 2015-12-15T00:50:30Z 2015-12-15T00:50:30Z 1982 en_US
dc.description.abstract Does second language instruction promote second language acquisition? Some studies conclude that instruction does not help (or even that it is counter-productive); others find it beneficial. The picture becomes clearer if two distinctions are made. First, researchers may address one or both of two issues: the absolute effect of instruction, on the one hand, and on the other, its relacive utility. Second, studies need to be sub-classified according to whether or not the comparisons they make involve controlling for the total amount of instruction, exposure, or instruction plus exposure, i.e. for the total opportunity to acquire the second language. Observing these distinctions, a review of research findings concludes that there is considerable (although not overwhelming) evidence that instruction is beneficiaL (1) for children as well as adults, (2) for beginning, intermediate and advanced students, (3) on integrative as well as discrete-point tests, and (4) in acquisition-rich as well as acquisition-poor environments. These findings have implications for theories of second language acquisition, such as Krashen's Monitor Theory, which make predictions about second language acquisition with and without instruction, and also for those involved in educational administrationl program design and classroom teaching. en_US
dc.format.digitalorigin reformatted digital en_US
dc.format.extent 28 pages en_US
dc.language eng en_US
dc.relation.ispartof University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 1(2)
dc.subject second language instruction en_US
dc.subject acquisition of second language en_US
dc.subject classroom teaching en_US
dc.subject social and learning en_US Second language acquisition en_US Social learning en_US Classroom learning centers en_US
dc.title Does Second Language Instruction Make a Difference? A Review of Research en_US
dc.type Working Paper en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US
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