Does Second Language Instruction Make a Difference? A Review of Research

dc.contributor.author Long, Michael H.
dc.contributor.department University of Hawaii at Manoa. Department of English as a Second Language.
dc.date.accessioned 2015-12-15T00:50:30Z
dc.date.available 2015-12-15T00:50:30Z
dc.date.issued 1982
dc.description.abstract Does second language instruction promote second language acquisition? Some studies conclude that instruction does not help (or even that it is counter-productive); others find it beneficial. The picture becomes clearer if two distinctions are made. First, researchers may address one or both of two issues: the absolute effect of instruction, on the one hand, and on the other, its relacive utility. Second, studies need to be sub-classified according to whether or not the comparisons they make involve controlling for the total amount of instruction, exposure, or instruction plus exposure, i.e. for the total opportunity to acquire the second language. Observing these distinctions, a review of research findings concludes that there is considerable (although not overwhelming) evidence that instruction is beneficiaL (1) for children as well as adults, (2) for beginning, intermediate and advanced students, (3) on integrative as well as discrete-point tests, and (4) in acquisition-rich as well as acquisition-poor environments. These findings have implications for theories of second language acquisition, such as Krashen's Monitor Theory, which make predictions about second language acquisition with and without instruction, and also for those involved in educational administrationl program design and classroom teaching.
dc.format.digitalorigin reformatted digital
dc.format.extent 28 pages
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/38597
dc.language eng
dc.relation.ispartof University of Hawai'i Working Papers in English as a Second Language 1(2)
dc.subject second language instruction
dc.subject acquisition of second language
dc.subject classroom teaching
dc.subject social and learning
dc.subject.fast Second language acquisition
dc.subject.fast Social learning
dc.subject.fast Classroom learning centers
dc.title Does Second Language Instruction Make a Difference? A Review of Research
dc.type Working Paper
dc.type.dcmi Text
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