WRRCTR No.182 Groundwater recharge with Honouliuli wastewater irrigation: Ewa plain, southern Oahu, Hawaii

dc.contributor.author Lau, L. Stephen en_US
dc.contributor.author Hardy, W Roy en_US
dc.contributor.author Gee, Henry K. en_US
dc.contributor.author Moravcik, Philip S. en_US
dc.contributor.author Dugan, Gordon L. en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2008-07-17T22:31:40Z
dc.date.available 2008-07-17T22:31:40Z
dc.date.issued 1989-08 en_US
dc.description Division of Water and Land Development, Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of Hawaii; and The Estate of James Campbell Grant/Contract No. B378,B382 en_US
dc.description.abstract High-rate groundwater replenishment by irrigation with primary chlorinated effluent from the Honouliuli Wastewater Treatment Plant was tested in a 3-yr demonstration project for the Ewa limestone aquifer, Oahu. Among the six options tested with different combinations of crops, irrigation methods, and effluent application rates, the most acceptable was California grass, which was grown in plots (0.5 acre each) surrounded by an earth berm and border-flood irrigated intermittently at an average rate of 20 in./wk. For this option, the production of 1 mgd of recharge water requires a 14.6-acre plot. For all options, recharge through 3 ft of vegetated, fairly permeable soil overlying 30 ft of permeable, reef limestone rock stabilized groundwater chlorides to 245 mg/l, stripped virtually all effluent nitrogen, and inactivated effluent bacteria. Toxics analyzed (pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals) were all below action or detectable levels. The natural system, which acts as a "living filter", outperformed secondary treatment in improving the water quality. No adverse environmental effects were identified: no surface runoff, no insects, and no groundwater contamination. Except for slight clogging in the California grass plots toward the end of each harvest cycle, surface soil clogging was not evident. Plots were free of shallow standing water except for a few hours on the day of effluent application. The mild odor noted only infrequently on site was less than that at the treatment plant. The biomass produced was of usable quality and adequate quantity. The simulated recharge plume spread in the aquifer several hundred feet from the site after the irrigation phase of a California-grass growth cycle. Project results favor a large scale water reclamation facility which will upgrade the Honouliuli primary effluent to a quality suitable for subsequent reuse. en_US
dc.format.extent xx + 121 pages en_US
dc.identifier.citation Lau LS, Hardy WR, Gee HK, Moravcik PS, Dugan GL. 1989. Groundwater recharge with Honouliuli wastewater irrigation: Ewa plain, southern Oahu, Hawaii. Honolulu (HI): Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa. WRRC technical report, 182. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10125/1978
dc.language.iso en-US en_US
dc.publisher Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii at Manoa en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries WRRC Technical Report en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseries 182 en_US
dc.subject groundwater recharge en_US
dc.subject wastewater irrigation en_US
dc.subject flood irrigation en_US
dc.subject drip irrigation en_US
dc.subject sprinkler en_US
dc.subject irrigation en_US
dc.subject aerosols en_US
dc.subject sugarcane en_US
dc.subject flood-drip irrigation en_US
dc.subject border-flood irrigation en_US
dc.subject effluent irrigation en_US
dc.subject aquifer recharge en_US
dc.subject caprock limestone aquifer en_US
dc.subject California grass en_US
dc.subject Ewa en_US
dc.subject Oahu en_US
dc.subject Hawaii en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Artificial groundwater recharge -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Groundwater flow -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage disposal in the ground -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Sewage irrigation -- Hawaii -- Oahu. en_US
dc.title WRRCTR No.182 Groundwater recharge with Honouliuli wastewater irrigation: Ewa plain, southern Oahu, Hawaii en_US
dc.type Report en_US
dc.type.dcmi Text en_US
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