Notes to Warner

1. We have benefited from discussion on these issues with the following people: Leanne Hinton, Mary Willie, Daryl Baldwin, Juliette Blevins, Wes Leonard, Ben Tucker, and participants at the Breath of Life California language revitalization workshops. The National Endowment for the Humanities (grant PA-51356-05), the Woodrow Wilson Foundation, the Native Cultures Fund, and the Seventh Generation Fund have provided partial funding for the project. Finally we express our appreciation to all the members of the Mutsun community who are participating in the project.

2. We prefer the terms “dormant” or “sleeping” to “extinct”’ (Fishman 2001a, Hinton 2001a, Lobo 2001, Leonard in press).

3. All Mutsun forms are in the practical orthography that is in use in the community (as described in our other work). S represents a post-alveolar fricative, T a retroflex stop, tY a palatalized alveolar stop, and y a palatal glide. Other symbols are similar to IPA usage. A hyphen separates clitics, but not affixes, from other material. This departs from standard interlinear glossing format with regard to hyphens.

4. These two birds are utterly different in appearance. Aside from color, the jay is at least twice as large as the sparrow (Cornell Lab of Ornithology 2004).

5. Mason (1916b) gives wini, wihi, uhini as variants of one word translated as ‘fish, turn about, cure’. Okrand (1977, from Harrington data) gives huyni as ‘to fish’. The phonological discrepancy between Mason’s and Okrand’s representations is within the usual range of variation for different transcriptions of the same word, especially for words with glides.

6. Some argue, however, that Modern Hebrew should instead be called Israeli, and that it is a legitimate language but not a type of Hebrew (Zuckermann 2003).

7. Callaghan’s extensive work (1997, 2001) on the Yok-Utian language family constitutes excellent progress on this task, however.

8. Even the authors of this paper tend to use too many English words in their Mutsun. We think of such words as the results of code-switching that will decrease with increasing Mutsun fluency, rather than as long-term borrowings. Taking the time to construct all necessary new words can hinder or prevent practice in speaking more fluently.

9. There may be a problem with this form, as the inherent reflexive suffix -ni should not normally appear on the transitive verb for ‘to cook’. Mason’s glosses indicate a transitive, however. Further data may lead to a correction. This is an example of the interaction among grammatical knowledge, lexical documentation, and the need of the community to express particular concepts even if information is incomplete.

10. Klingon has an indirect tie to Mutsun: Marc Okrand, the author of the Mutsun grammar, was the developer/author of Klingon. A small number of highly motivated Star Trek fans have become relatively fluent Klingon speakers as adults, and they are attempting to increase the use of Klingon (