Weathering of Torula Yeast Borax Food Bait and Capture of Oriental, Mediterranean, and Melon Fruit Flies in Hawaii (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Shelly, Todd
Fezza, Thomas
Kurashima, Rick
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Hawaiian Entomological Society
Detection of pestiferous tephritid fruit flies relies largely on traps baited with male-specific attractants, termed male lures. Although male lures are quite powerful, two factors limit their effectiveness: they do not target females, and males of many tephritid species are not attracted to these compounds. Consequently, food-baited traps are an important component of fruit fly monitoring programs, because, despite their relatively low attractancy, food baits are general attractants that are neither sex- nor species-specific. Enzymatic torula yeast in an aqueous solution is a standard food attractant used in tephritid trapping programs worldwide. Torula yeast bait is not particularly long-lasting, and replacement is recommended every 7–14 d. Few data exist regarding the attractiveness of this food bait over time, and the present study was undertaken to compare captures of wild Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) in Multilure traps baited with torula yeast slurry weathered for 3, 6, 9, or 12 d. No significant variation in trap catch was detected among these weathering intervals for any of the three species. In a second experiment, trap captures were compared between food bait weathered 3 vs. 21 d, and in this case significantly more C. capitata and Z. cucurbitae were captured in the 3-d-old bait, whereas catch of B. dorsalis was similar for traps containing food bait weathered for 3 or 21 d. Results are compared with those of previous studies.
Tephritidae, Trapping, Detection, food bait
Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society (2021) 54: 53-62.
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