Create an Effective Instructional Video – A Model Debriefing Video for Non-English Speakers

Eto, Yuka
Lee-Jayaram, Jannet
Berg, Benjamin W.
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Online courses on platforms have created increased familiarity with instructional video-based learning. FunSim-J Online (FSJO; Fundamental Simulation Instructional Methods in Japanese Online) is an international faculty development course hosted by SimTiki Simulation Center, participants view recorded asynchronous lectures, and practice facilitation and debriefing synchronously via Zoom. Course feedback suggested a demonstration model debriefing; however, no sufficient internet examples were available and limited course time was available for synchronous demonstration during, therefore we created an instructional video. Debriefing is the most important part of simulation education, which is an activity to encourage participants’ reflective thinking and provide feedback about their performance in simulation. To create an effective instructional video, we followed several principles, such as the subtitle principle1. Separate videos of the scenario and of the debriefing were produced. In a stepwise process, we aimed to create an instructional video for demonstration of a model structured debriefing of a simple scenario using the GAS (Gather-Analyze-Summarize) debriefing framework. GAS is used for ACLS which is the global standard resuscitation simulation course, and is the fundamental framework well known in the world. In the first step we established target learners as novice simulation educators enrolled in FSJO. In the second step we created a storyboard allocating two minutes for a demonstration scenario with actors, followed by 11 minutes of a demonstration debriefing. In the third step two expert simulation educators wrote scripts to highlight key elements of each GAS phase. In the fourth step of filming an expert simulation educator played the debriefer, and SimTiki staff played 3 standardized learners; all are native English speakers. The scenario was filmed with a ceiling camera, and debriefing was filmed with 2 tripod-mounted cameras to simultaneously capture both debriefer and students, respectively. Cue cards were used to support smooth dialogue. In the fifth step the English language video was edited with Adobe Premiere Pro to create 2 videos with Japanese subtitles. Reduction of cognitive load is an important consideration in creation of an instructional video2 . A recent review recommends subtitles in the viewer native language when creating a video with English narration for a non-native English speaker, with slower than normal/natural speed of the English narration1. Actors in our video spoke scripted words in a cadence much slower than natural speech. Subtitles were color-coded for each speaker allowing viewers to easily identify the speaker, a challenge for non-native language viewers further complicated by the use of COVID masks by all actors. Subtitle colors were selected from the Color Universal Design palette, adapted for color blindness. A production process strength is that the script was written by experienced simulation educators, resulting in a highly realistic representation. Finally, the Japanese Simulation Fellow translator has an expert working knowledge of the GAS framework which supports the creation of a culturally aligned natural language translation rather than a direct word-for-word translation, while maintaining key concepts of debriefing. This FSJO educational video was tested in November 2021 and will be made available to about 60 past participants. We will conduct a survey regarding learner impressions and understanding of the video. 1. Mayer RE, Fiorella L, Stull A. Five ways to increase the effectiveness of instructional video. Educ Technology Res Dev. 2020;68(3):837–852. 2. Castro-Alonso JC, Koning BB de, Fiorella L, Paas F. Five Strategies for Optimizing Instructional Materials: Instructor- and Learner-Managed Cognitive Load. Educ Psychol Rev. 2021;1–29. PMID: 33716467
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